1,2-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) is a potent hepatotoxicant in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats and previous studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the development of hepatotoxicity. Since reactive oxygen species can damage lipid membranes, this study was conducted to determine the extent of lipid peroxidation after administration of 1,2-DCB by immunohistochemical analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adduct formation in liver and conjugated diene formation in liver and serum. The contribution of Kupffer cells to the lipid peroxidation was also investigated. Male F344 rats were administered 1,2-DCB (3.6 mmol/kg ip in corn oil) and killed at selected times between 3 and 48 h. Time course studies revealed the greatest abundance of 4-HNE protein adducts in the centrilobular regions of the liver 24 h after 1,2-DCB administration, with much lower levels at 16 h. Adducts were present in necrotic and vacuolized centrilobular hepatocytes of 1,2-DCB treated rats but not in livers of controls. Further, conjugated dienes were significantly increased in liver and serum 16 and 24 h after 1,2-DCB administration, peaking at 24 h. These data correlated with hepatocellular injury, determined by serum alanine aminotransferase activity and histopathological evaluation, which was markedly elevated within 16 h and peaked at 24 h. When rats were pretreated with gadolinium chloride (GdCI3; 10 mg/kg iv 24 h prior to 1,2-DCB), an inhibitor of Kupffer cells, hepatotoxicity was decreased by 89 and 86%, at 16 and 24 h, respectively. Conjugated diene concentrations were decreased to control values at these times after 1,2-DCB administration. Moreover, no 4- HNE protein adducts were detected in livers of 1,2-DCB-treated rats pretreated with GdCI3. Finally, Kupffer cells isolated from 1,2-DCB-treated rats produced significantly more superoxide anion than Kupffer cells isolated from vehicle controls. These data, along with previous findings, suggest that lipid peroxidation associated with 1,2-DCB is mediated in part by Kupffer cell-derived reactive oxygen species.
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