1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America

Michael Worobey, Thomas D. Watts, Richard A. McKay, Marc A. Suchard, Timothy Granade, Dirk E. Teuwen, Beryl A. Koblin, Walid Heneine, Philippe Lemey, Harold W. Jaffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The emergence of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North American men who have sex with men was a key turning point in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Phylogenetic studies have suggested cryptic subtype B circulation in the United States (US) throughout the 1970s and an even older presence in the Caribbean. However, these temporal and geographical inferences, based upon partial HIV-1 genomes that postdate the recognition of AIDS in 1981, remain contentious and the earliest movements of the virus within the US are unknown. We serologically screened >2,000 1970s serum samples and developed a highly sensitive approach for recovering viral RNA from degraded archival samples. Here, we report eight coding-complete genomes from US serum samples from 1978-1979 - eight of the nine oldest HIV-1 group M genomes to date. This early, full-genome 'snapshot' reveals that the US HIV-1 epidemic exhibited extensive genetic diversity in the 1970s but also provides strong evidence for its emergence from a pre-existing Caribbean epidemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses estimate the jump to the US at around 1970 and place the ancestral US virus in New York City with 0.99 posterior probability support, strongly suggesting this was the crucial hub of early US HIV/AIDS diversification. Logistic growth coalescent models reveal epidemic doubling times of 0.86 and 1.12 years for the US and Caribbean, respectively, suggesting rapid early expansion in each location. Comparisons with more recent data reveal many of these insights to be unattainable without archival, full-genome sequences. We also recovered the HIV-1 genome from the individual known as 'Patient 0' (ref. 5) and found neither biological nor historical evidence that he was the primary case in the US or for subtype B as a whole. We discuss the genesis and persistence of this belief in the light of these evolutionary insights.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-101
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume539
Issue number7627
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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North America
HIV-1
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV
Genome
Viruses
Bayes Theorem
Viral RNA
Pandemics
Serum
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • General

Cite this

Worobey, M., Watts, T. D., McKay, R. A., Suchard, M. A., Granade, T., Teuwen, D. E., ... Jaffe, H. W. (2016). 1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America. Nature, 539(7627), 98-101. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19827

1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America. / Worobey, Michael; Watts, Thomas D.; McKay, Richard A.; Suchard, Marc A.; Granade, Timothy; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Heneine, Walid; Lemey, Philippe; Jaffe, Harold W.

In: Nature, Vol. 539, No. 7627, 2016, p. 98-101.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Worobey, M, Watts, TD, McKay, RA, Suchard, MA, Granade, T, Teuwen, DE, Koblin, BA, Heneine, W, Lemey, P & Jaffe, HW 2016, '1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America', Nature, vol. 539, no. 7627, pp. 98-101. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19827
Worobey, Michael ; Watts, Thomas D. ; McKay, Richard A. ; Suchard, Marc A. ; Granade, Timothy ; Teuwen, Dirk E. ; Koblin, Beryl A. ; Heneine, Walid ; Lemey, Philippe ; Jaffe, Harold W. / 1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America. In: Nature. 2016 ; Vol. 539, No. 7627. pp. 98-101.
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