3D-HST: A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the hubble space telescope

Gabriel B. Brammer, Pieter G. Van Dokkum, Marijn Franx, Mattia Fumagalli, Shannon Patel, Hans Walter Rix, Rosalind E. Skelton, Mariska Kriek, Erica Nelson, Kasper B. Schmidt, Rachel Bezanson, Elisabete Da Cunha, Dawn K. Erb, Xiaohui Fan, Natascha Förster Schreiber, Garth D. Illingworth, Ivo Labbé, Joel Leja, Britt Lundgren, Dan MageeDanilo Marchesini, Patrick McCarthy, Ivelina Momcheva, Adam Muzzin, Ryan Quadri, Charles C. Steidel, Tomer Tal, David Wake, Katherine E. Whitaker, Anna Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

323 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ∼7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when 60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625arcmin 2) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of 5per resolution element at H 140 ∼ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ∼5 × 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ∼2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ∼0″.13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) 1000kms -1. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume200
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2012

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Hubble Space Telescope
galaxies
near infrared
wavelength
quasars
brown dwarf stars
background level
universe
erg
signal-to-noise ratio
orbits
James Webb Space Telescope
spatial resolution
continuous spectra
regularity
wavelengths
catalogs
photometry
sky
optical spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Brammer, G. B., Van Dokkum, P. G., Franx, M., Fumagalli, M., Patel, S., Rix, H. W., ... Williams, A. (2012). 3D-HST: A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the hubble space telescope. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 200(2), [13]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/200/2/13

3D-HST : A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the hubble space telescope. / Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Kriek, Mariska; Nelson, Erica; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; McCarthy, Patrick; Momcheva, Ivelina; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan; Steidel, Charles C.; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Williams, Anna.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 200, No. 2, 13, 06.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brammer, GB, Van Dokkum, PG, Franx, M, Fumagalli, M, Patel, S, Rix, HW, Skelton, RE, Kriek, M, Nelson, E, Schmidt, KB, Bezanson, R, Da Cunha, E, Erb, DK, Fan, X, Förster Schreiber, N, Illingworth, GD, Labbé, I, Leja, J, Lundgren, B, Magee, D, Marchesini, D, McCarthy, P, Momcheva, I, Muzzin, A, Quadri, R, Steidel, CC, Tal, T, Wake, D, Whitaker, KE & Williams, A 2012, '3D-HST: A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the hubble space telescope', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 200, no. 2, 13. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/200/2/13
Brammer, Gabriel B. ; Van Dokkum, Pieter G. ; Franx, Marijn ; Fumagalli, Mattia ; Patel, Shannon ; Rix, Hans Walter ; Skelton, Rosalind E. ; Kriek, Mariska ; Nelson, Erica ; Schmidt, Kasper B. ; Bezanson, Rachel ; Da Cunha, Elisabete ; Erb, Dawn K. ; Fan, Xiaohui ; Förster Schreiber, Natascha ; Illingworth, Garth D. ; Labbé, Ivo ; Leja, Joel ; Lundgren, Britt ; Magee, Dan ; Marchesini, Danilo ; McCarthy, Patrick ; Momcheva, Ivelina ; Muzzin, Adam ; Quadri, Ryan ; Steidel, Charles C. ; Tal, Tomer ; Wake, David ; Whitaker, Katherine E. ; Williams, Anna. / 3D-HST : A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the hubble space telescope. In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2012 ; Vol. 200, No. 2.
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AU - Franx, Marijn

AU - Fumagalli, Mattia

AU - Patel, Shannon

AU - Rix, Hans Walter

AU - Skelton, Rosalind E.

AU - Kriek, Mariska

AU - Nelson, Erica

AU - Schmidt, Kasper B.

AU - Bezanson, Rachel

AU - Da Cunha, Elisabete

AU - Erb, Dawn K.

AU - Fan, Xiaohui

AU - Förster Schreiber, Natascha

AU - Illingworth, Garth D.

AU - Labbé, Ivo

AU - Leja, Joel

AU - Lundgren, Britt

AU - Magee, Dan

AU - Marchesini, Danilo

AU - McCarthy, Patrick

AU - Momcheva, Ivelina

AU - Muzzin, Adam

AU - Quadri, Ryan

AU - Steidel, Charles C.

AU - Tal, Tomer

AU - Wake, David

AU - Whitaker, Katherine E.

AU - Williams, Anna

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N2 - We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ∼7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when 60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625arcmin 2) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of 5per resolution element at H 140 ∼ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ∼5 × 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ∼2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ∼0″.13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) 1000kms -1. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

AB - We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ∼7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when 60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625arcmin 2) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of 5per resolution element at H 140 ∼ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ∼5 × 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ∼2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ∼0″.13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) 1000kms -1. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

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