A classical morphological analysis of galaxies in the spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S<sup>4</sup>G)

Ronald J. Buta, Kartik Sheth, E. Athanassoula, A. Bosma, Johan H. Knapen, Eija Laurikainen, Heikki Salo, Debra Elmegreen, Luis C. Ho, Dennis F Zaritsky, Helene Courtois, Joannah L. Hinz, Juan Carlos Munoz-Mateos, Taehyun Kim, Michael W. Regan, Dimitri A. Gadotti, Armando Gil De Paz, Jarkko Laine, Karln Menendez-Delmestre, Sebastien ComeronSantiago Erroz Ferrer, Mark Seibert, Trisha Mizusawa, Benne Holwerda, Barry F. Madore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

91 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S<sup>4</sup>G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S<sup>4</sup>G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S<sup>4</sup>G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of "stellar structures" seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume217
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

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stellar structure
galaxies
disk galaxies
rings
atlas
interstellar extinction
extinction
boxes
analysis
lenses

Keywords

  • atlases
  • galaxies: elliptical and lenticular
  • galaxies: irregular
  • galaxies: spiral
  • galaxies: structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

A classical morphological analysis of galaxies in the spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S<sup>4</sup>G). / Buta, Ronald J.; Sheth, Kartik; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Debra; Ho, Luis C.; Zaritsky, Dennis F; Courtois, Helene; Hinz, Joannah L.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Regan, Michael W.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Paz, Armando Gil De; Laine, Jarkko; Menendez-Delmestre, Karln; Comeron, Sebastien; Ferrer, Santiago Erroz; Seibert, Mark; Mizusawa, Trisha; Holwerda, Benne; Madore, Barry F.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 217, No. 2, 32, 01.04.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Buta, RJ, Sheth, K, Athanassoula, E, Bosma, A, Knapen, JH, Laurikainen, E, Salo, H, Elmegreen, D, Ho, LC, Zaritsky, DF, Courtois, H, Hinz, JL, Munoz-Mateos, JC, Kim, T, Regan, MW, Gadotti, DA, Paz, AGD, Laine, J, Menendez-Delmestre, K, Comeron, S, Ferrer, SE, Seibert, M, Mizusawa, T, Holwerda, B & Madore, BF 2015, 'A classical morphological analysis of galaxies in the spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S<sup>4</sup>G)', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 217, no. 2, 32. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/217/2/32
Buta, Ronald J. ; Sheth, Kartik ; Athanassoula, E. ; Bosma, A. ; Knapen, Johan H. ; Laurikainen, Eija ; Salo, Heikki ; Elmegreen, Debra ; Ho, Luis C. ; Zaritsky, Dennis F ; Courtois, Helene ; Hinz, Joannah L. ; Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos ; Kim, Taehyun ; Regan, Michael W. ; Gadotti, Dimitri A. ; Paz, Armando Gil De ; Laine, Jarkko ; Menendez-Delmestre, Karln ; Comeron, Sebastien ; Ferrer, Santiago Erroz ; Seibert, Mark ; Mizusawa, Trisha ; Holwerda, Benne ; Madore, Barry F. / A classical morphological analysis of galaxies in the spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S<sup>4</sup>G). In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2015 ; Vol. 217, No. 2.
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AU - Knapen, Johan H.

AU - Laurikainen, Eija

AU - Salo, Heikki

AU - Elmegreen, Debra

AU - Ho, Luis C.

AU - Zaritsky, Dennis F

AU - Courtois, Helene

AU - Hinz, Joannah L.

AU - Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos

AU - Kim, Taehyun

AU - Regan, Michael W.

AU - Gadotti, Dimitri A.

AU - Paz, Armando Gil De

AU - Laine, Jarkko

AU - Menendez-Delmestre, Karln

AU - Comeron, Sebastien

AU - Ferrer, Santiago Erroz

AU - Seibert, Mark

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AU - Madore, Barry F.

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N2 - The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S4G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S4G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of "stellar structures" seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

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