A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection

Lena Nilsson Schönnesson, John Atkinson, Mark L. Williams, Anne Markey Bowen, Michael W. Ross, Sandra C. Timpson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-53
Number of pages10
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume97
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Crack Cocaine
Cluster analysis
Condoms
cluster analysis
African Americans
HIV Infections
Cluster Analysis
drug use
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Group
Cracks
Public Assistance
Alcohols
American
Sexual Partners
cross-sectional study
multivariate analysis
Motivation
small group

Keywords

  • African-American
  • Cluster analysis
  • Crack cocaine
  • HIV infection
  • HIV risk groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Toxicology
  • Health(social science)

Cite this

A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection. / Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson; Atkinson, John; Williams, Mark L.; Bowen, Anne Markey; Ross, Michael W.; Timpson, Sandra C.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, 01.09.2008, p. 44-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson ; Atkinson, John ; Williams, Mark L. ; Bowen, Anne Markey ; Ross, Michael W. ; Timpson, Sandra C. / A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2008 ; Vol. 97, No. 1-2. pp. 44-53.
@article{b5d22dbe1ec8468ebd22f12cda1afd95,
title = "A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection",
abstract = "The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences.",
keywords = "African-American, Cluster analysis, Crack cocaine, HIV infection, HIV risk groups",
author = "Sch{\"o}nnesson, {Lena Nilsson} and John Atkinson and Williams, {Mark L.} and Bowen, {Anne Markey} and Ross, {Michael W.} and Timpson, {Sandra C.}",
year = "2008",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.023",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "97",
pages = "44--53",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection

AU - Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson

AU - Atkinson, John

AU - Williams, Mark L.

AU - Bowen, Anne Markey

AU - Ross, Michael W.

AU - Timpson, Sandra C.

PY - 2008/9/1

Y1 - 2008/9/1

N2 - The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences.

AB - The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences.

KW - African-American

KW - Cluster analysis

KW - Crack cocaine

KW - HIV infection

KW - HIV risk groups

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=46649116071&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=46649116071&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.023

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.023

M3 - Article

C2 - 18495380

AN - SCOPUS:46649116071

VL - 97

SP - 44

EP - 53

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

IS - 1-2

ER -