A Comparative Analysis of Mucormycosis in Immunosuppressed Hosts Including Patients with Uncontrolled Diabetes in the Southwest United States

Mohanad Al-Obaidi, Babak Youssefi, James Bardwell, Rory Bouzigard, Christopher H. Le, Tirdad T. Zangeneh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is an invasive fungal infection that carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and other immunocompromising conditions are risk factors for mucormycosis development. We here describe the differences in characteristics and outcomes of mucormycosis among solid organ transplant, hematological malignancy, and diabetes mellitus groups at our institution. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review over the period of 2009-2020, with identifying patients using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions. Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected. Results: There were 28 patients identified: 7 solid organ transplant, 3 hematological malignancy, and 18 diabetes mellitus patients were included in the study. Three solid organ transplant patients experienced an episode of rejection, and another 3 had cytomegalovirus infection prior to presenting with mucormycosis. Four of seven solid organ transplant patients had a history of diabetes mellitus, but the median hemoglobin A1C was lower than in the diabetes mellitus group (6.3 vs 11.5; P = .006). The mortality rate difference between solid organ transplant and diabetes mellitus was not statistically significant: 2/7 (28.57%) vs 5/18 (27.78%); P = .66. Patients with bilateral disease (pulmonary or sinus) had significantly higher mortality (80% vs 13%, P = .008). There was no difference in mortality outcomes among the different types of antifungal therapies administered. Conclusion: A multispecialty approach is imperative in mucormycosis therapy. While the underlying risk factors were different, the outcomes were comparable for the solid organ transplant and diabetes mellitus groups. Future larger and longitudinal studies are recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1155-1159
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Volume134
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antifungals
  • Immunocompromised host
  • Invasive fungal infections
  • Mucormycosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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