A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

J. S. Dunlop, R. J. McLure, A. D. Biggs, J. E. Geach, M. J. Michalowski, R. J. Ivison, W. Rujopakarn, E. van Kampen, A. Kirkpatrick, A. Pope, D. Scott, A. M. Swinbank, T. A. Targett, I. Aretxaga, J. E. Austermann, P. N. Best, V. A. Bruce, E. L. Chapin, S. Charlot, M. Cirasuolo & 19 others K. Coppin, R. S. Ellis, S. L. Finkelstein, C. C. Hayward, D. H. Hughes, E. Ibar, P. Jagannathan, S. Khochfar, M. P. Koprowski, D. Narayanan, K. Nyland, C. Papovich, J. A. Peacock, G. H. Rieke, B. Robertson, T. Vernstrom, P. P. van der Werf, G. W. Wilson, M. Yun

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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Abstract

We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts (〈 z〉 = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥2 × 1010M, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝ M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010M), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages861-883
Number of pages23
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume466
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

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star formation rate
galaxies
rate
stellar mass
star formation
universe
stars
transit
mass distribution
lists
coverings
physical properties
dust
cameras
time measurement
probes
predictions
stacking
physical property
probe

Keywords

  • Cosmology: observations
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Galaxies: starburst
  • Submillimetre: galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Dunlop, J. S., McLure, R. J., Biggs, A. D., Geach, J. E., Michalowski, M. J., Ivison, R. J., ... Yun, M. (2017). A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 466(1), 861-883. DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3088

A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. / Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Biggs, A. D.; Geach, J. E.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ivison, R. J.; Rujopakarn, W.; van Kampen, E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Pope, A.; Scott, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; Targett, T. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Best, P. N.; Bruce, V. A.; Chapin, E. L.; Charlot, S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Coppin, K.; Ellis, R. S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hayward, C. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Jagannathan, P.; Khochfar, S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Narayanan, D.; Nyland, K.; Papovich, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Robertson, B.; Vernstrom, T.; van der Werf, P. P.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 466, No. 1, 2017, p. 861-883.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Dunlop, JS, McLure, RJ, Biggs, AD, Geach, JE, Michalowski, MJ, Ivison, RJ, Rujopakarn, W, van Kampen, E, Kirkpatrick, A, Pope, A, Scott, D, Swinbank, AM, Targett, TA, Aretxaga, I, Austermann, JE, Best, PN, Bruce, VA, Chapin, EL, Charlot, S, Cirasuolo, M, Coppin, K, Ellis, RS, Finkelstein, SL, Hayward, CC, Hughes, DH, Ibar, E, Jagannathan, P, Khochfar, S, Koprowski, MP, Narayanan, D, Nyland, K, Papovich, C, Peacock, JA, Rieke, GH, Robertson, B, Vernstrom, T, van der Werf, PP, Wilson, GW & Yun, M 2017, 'A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol 466, no. 1, pp. 861-883. DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3088
Dunlop JS, McLure RJ, Biggs AD, Geach JE, Michalowski MJ, Ivison RJ et al. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017;466(1):861-883. Available from, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3088
Dunlop, J. S. ; McLure, R. J. ; Biggs, A. D. ; Geach, J. E. ; Michalowski, M. J. ; Ivison, R. J. ; Rujopakarn, W. ; van Kampen, E. ; Kirkpatrick, A. ; Pope, A. ; Scott, D. ; Swinbank, A. M. ; Targett, T. A. ; Aretxaga, I. ; Austermann, J. E. ; Best, P. N. ; Bruce, V. A. ; Chapin, E. L. ; Charlot, S. ; Cirasuolo, M. ; Coppin, K. ; Ellis, R. S. ; Finkelstein, S. L. ; Hayward, C. C. ; Hughes, D. H. ; Ibar, E. ; Jagannathan, P. ; Khochfar, S. ; Koprowski, M. P. ; Narayanan, D. ; Nyland, K. ; Papovich, C. ; Peacock, J. A. ; Rieke, G. H. ; Robertson, B. ; Vernstrom, T. ; van der Werf, P. P. ; Wilson, G. W. ; Yun, M./ A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ; Vol. 466, No. 1. pp. 861-883
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abstract = "We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts (〈 z〉 = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥2 × 1010M⊙, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝ M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010M⊙), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

AU - Dunlop,J. S.

AU - McLure,R. J.

AU - Biggs,A. D.

AU - Geach,J. E.

AU - Michalowski,M. J.

AU - Ivison,R. J.

AU - Rujopakarn,W.

AU - van Kampen,E.

AU - Kirkpatrick,A.

AU - Pope,A.

AU - Scott,D.

AU - Swinbank,A. M.

AU - Targett,T. A.

AU - Aretxaga,I.

AU - Austermann,J. E.

AU - Best,P. N.

AU - Bruce,V. A.

AU - Chapin,E. L.

AU - Charlot,S.

AU - Cirasuolo,M.

AU - Coppin,K.

AU - Ellis,R. S.

AU - Finkelstein,S. L.

AU - Hayward,C. C.

AU - Hughes,D. H.

AU - Ibar,E.

AU - Jagannathan,P.

AU - Khochfar,S.

AU - Koprowski,M. P.

AU - Narayanan,D.

AU - Nyland,K.

AU - Papovich,C.

AU - Peacock,J. A.

AU - Rieke,G. H.

AU - Robertson,B.

AU - Vernstrom,T.

AU - van der Werf,P. P.

AU - Wilson,G. W.

AU - Yun,M.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts (〈 z〉 = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥2 × 1010M⊙, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝ M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010M⊙), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.

AB - We present the results of the first, deep Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) imaging covering the full ≃4.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) imaged with Wide Field Camera 3/IR on HST. Using a 45-pointing mosaic, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3-mm image reaching σ1.3 ≃ 35 μJy, at a resolution of ≃0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ≃50 > 3.5σ peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with S1.3 > 120 μJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts (〈 z〉 = 2.15). Due to the unparalleled supporting data, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-redshift Universe; indeed at z ≥2 our ALMA sample contains seven of the nine galaxies in the HUDF with M* ≥2 × 1010M⊙, and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, reflecting the rapid drop-off of high-mass galaxies with increasing redshift. The detections, coupled with stacking, allow us to probe the redshift/mass distribution of the 1.3-mm background down to S1.3 ≃ 10 μJy. We find strong evidence for a steep star-forming 'main sequence' at z ≃ 2, with SFR ∝ M* and a mean specific SFR ≃ 2.2 Gyr-1. Moreover, we find that ≃85 per cent of total star formation at z ≃ 2 is enshrouded in dust, with ≃65 per cent of all star formation at this epoch occurring in high-mass galaxies (M* > 2 × 1010M⊙), for which the average obscured:unobscured SF ratio is ≃200. Finally, we revisit the cosmic evolution of SFR density; we find this peaks at z ≃ 2.5, and that the star-forming Universe transits from primarily unobscured to primarily obscured at z ≃ 4.

KW - Cosmology: observations

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

KW - Galaxies: starburst

KW - Submillimetre: galaxies

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