A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection: The case of SN 2012ap

Sayan Chakraborti, Alicia Soderberg, Laura Chomiuk, Atish Kamble, Naveen Yadav, Alak Ray, Kevin Hurley, Raffaella Margutti, Dan Milisavljevic, Michael Bietenholz, Andreas Brunthaler, Giuliano Pignata, Elena Pian, Paolo Mazzali, Claes Fransson, Norbert Bartel, Mario Hamuy, Emily Levesque, Andrew Macfadyen, Jason DittmannMiriam Krauss, M. S. Briggs, V. Connaughton, K. Yamaoka, T. Takahashi, M. Ohno, Y. Fukazawa, M. Tashiro, Y. Terada, T. Murakami, J. Goldsten, S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, J. Cummings, H. Krimm, D. Palmer, S. Golenetskii, R. Aptekar, D. Frederiks, D. Svinkin, T. Cline, I. G. Mitrofanov, D. Golovin, M. L. Litvak, A. B. Sanin, William V. Boynton, C. Fellows, K. Harshman, H. Enos, A. Von Kienlin, A. Rau, X. Zhang, V. Savchenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are characterized by ultra-relativistic outflows, while supernovae are generally characterized by non-relativistic ejecta. GRB afterglows decelerate rapidly, usually within days, because their low-mass ejecta rapidly sweep up a comparatively larger mass of circumstellar material. However, supernovae with heavy ejecta can be in nearly free expansion for centuries. Supernovae were thought to have non-relativistic outflows except for a few relativistic ones accompanied by GRBs. This clear division was blurred by SN 2009bb, the first supernova with a relativistic outflow without an observed GRB. However, the ejecta from SN 2009bb was baryon loaded and in nearly free expansion for a year, unlike GRBs. We report the first supernova discovered without a GRB but with rapidly decelerating mildly relativistic ejecta, SN 2012ap. We discovered a bright and rapidly evolving radio counterpart driven by the circumstellar interaction of the relativistic ejecta. However, we did not find any coincident GRB with an isotropic fluence of more than one-sixth of the fluence from GRB 980425. This shows for the first time that central engines in SNe Ic, even without an observed GRB, can produce both relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflows like GRBs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number187
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume805
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015

Fingerprint

ejecta
gamma ray bursts
supernovae
outflow
fluence
engine
expansion
radio
afterglows
division
engines
baryons

Keywords

  • gamma-ray burst: general
  • radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
  • shock waves
  • supernovae: individual (SN 2012ap)
  • techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Chakraborti, S., Soderberg, A., Chomiuk, L., Kamble, A., Yadav, N., Ray, A., ... Savchenko, V. (2015). A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection: The case of SN 2012ap. Astrophysical Journal, 805(2), [187]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/187

A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection : The case of SN 2012ap. / Chakraborti, Sayan; Soderberg, Alicia; Chomiuk, Laura; Kamble, Atish; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Hurley, Kevin; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Bietenholz, Michael; Brunthaler, Andreas; Pignata, Giuliano; Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo; Fransson, Claes; Bartel, Norbert; Hamuy, Mario; Levesque, Emily; Macfadyen, Andrew; Dittmann, Jason; Krauss, Miriam; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Yamaoka, K.; Takahashi, T.; Ohno, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Terada, Y.; Murakami, T.; Goldsten, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Cummings, J.; Krimm, H.; Palmer, D.; Golenetskii, S.; Aptekar, R.; Frederiks, D.; Svinkin, D.; Cline, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, William V.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Enos, H.; Kienlin, A. Von; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.; Savchenko, V.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 805, No. 2, 187, 01.06.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chakraborti, S, Soderberg, A, Chomiuk, L, Kamble, A, Yadav, N, Ray, A, Hurley, K, Margutti, R, Milisavljevic, D, Bietenholz, M, Brunthaler, A, Pignata, G, Pian, E, Mazzali, P, Fransson, C, Bartel, N, Hamuy, M, Levesque, E, Macfadyen, A, Dittmann, J, Krauss, M, Briggs, MS, Connaughton, V, Yamaoka, K, Takahashi, T, Ohno, M, Fukazawa, Y, Tashiro, M, Terada, Y, Murakami, T, Goldsten, J, Barthelmy, S, Gehrels, N, Cummings, J, Krimm, H, Palmer, D, Golenetskii, S, Aptekar, R, Frederiks, D, Svinkin, D, Cline, T, Mitrofanov, IG, Golovin, D, Litvak, ML, Sanin, AB, Boynton, WV, Fellows, C, Harshman, K, Enos, H, Kienlin, AV, Rau, A, Zhang, X & Savchenko, V 2015, 'A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection: The case of SN 2012ap', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 805, no. 2, 187. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/187
Chakraborti S, Soderberg A, Chomiuk L, Kamble A, Yadav N, Ray A et al. A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection: The case of SN 2012ap. Astrophysical Journal. 2015 Jun 1;805(2). 187. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/187
Chakraborti, Sayan ; Soderberg, Alicia ; Chomiuk, Laura ; Kamble, Atish ; Yadav, Naveen ; Ray, Alak ; Hurley, Kevin ; Margutti, Raffaella ; Milisavljevic, Dan ; Bietenholz, Michael ; Brunthaler, Andreas ; Pignata, Giuliano ; Pian, Elena ; Mazzali, Paolo ; Fransson, Claes ; Bartel, Norbert ; Hamuy, Mario ; Levesque, Emily ; Macfadyen, Andrew ; Dittmann, Jason ; Krauss, Miriam ; Briggs, M. S. ; Connaughton, V. ; Yamaoka, K. ; Takahashi, T. ; Ohno, M. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Tashiro, M. ; Terada, Y. ; Murakami, T. ; Goldsten, J. ; Barthelmy, S. ; Gehrels, N. ; Cummings, J. ; Krimm, H. ; Palmer, D. ; Golenetskii, S. ; Aptekar, R. ; Frederiks, D. ; Svinkin, D. ; Cline, T. ; Mitrofanov, I. G. ; Golovin, D. ; Litvak, M. L. ; Sanin, A. B. ; Boynton, William V. ; Fellows, C. ; Harshman, K. ; Enos, H. ; Kienlin, A. Von ; Rau, A. ; Zhang, X. ; Savchenko, V. / A missing-link in the supernova-GRB connection : The case of SN 2012ap. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 805, No. 2.
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AU - Yadav, Naveen

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AU - Hurley, Kevin

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