Using a phoropter to measure the refractive error is one of the most commonly used methods by ophthalmologists and optometrists. Here, we demonstrate design and fabrication of a portable automatic phoropter with no need for patient's feedback. The system is based on three tunable-focus fluidic lenses and thin-film holographic optical elements to perform automatic refractive error measurement and provide a diagnostic prescription without supervision. Three separate lenses are deployed to correct the defocus and astigmatism. The refractive error is measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that calculates the Zernike values of an infrared wavefront emerging from the eye. Holographic optical elements steer the emerging wavefront into the wavefront sensor, while simultaneously providing an unobstructed view for the subject. The power of each lens is controlled by pumping a liquid in and out of the lens chamber using servo motor actuated diaphragm pumps. Spherical and cylindrical correction range of -10 to +10 diopters with 0.1 diopter increments is achieved in less than 15 seconds using wavefront sensor feedback to the pumps. This system can be used in rapid screening of large patient populations especially in the developing countries that lack sufficient facilities and specialist doctors.
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