A prospective test of distal and proximal determinants of smoking initiation in early adolescents

Scott C Carvajal, Teresa M. Granillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations


This study tests a broad array of determinants of utility for developing smoking preventive interventions using a population-based cohort of early adolescents. Multivariable logistic regressions using never-smokers at baseline (N = 1137; age 11-14) showed a model of distal determinants was more predictive of initiation within the approximate 10 month follow up period than one of proximal determinants. When all determinants were simultaneously considered, lesser academic achievement and fewer environmental impediments to smoking most strongly predicted initiation. The findings are consistent with some current smoking prevention programs, however such programs may be further potent by using theory-based social development approaches and through reducing tobacco availability or social contexts where youth can smoke without another adult knowing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)649-660
Number of pages12
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006



  • Adolescents
  • Determinants
  • Initiation
  • Onset
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

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