It has been demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a regenerative cell population with potential uses for bone and cartilage regeneration. However, the biomarker expression and heterogeneity of the population has not been thoroughly characterized. By analyzing biomarker expression, we aimed to understand the composition of ASC populations extracted using a common extraction technique in comparison to ASC populations given an additional purification step. Human adipose tissue samples were collected, and ASCs were extracted from these samples using a common, published extraction technique (primary extraction). These cells were cultured and half were given an additional purification. The primarily-extracted and purified cell populations were analyzed for biomarkers that correspond to specific cell types. The addition of the purification technique reduced the number of cells expressing hematopoietic and endothelial biomarkers and did not cause the yield of mesenchymal stem cell biomarker-expressing cells to decrease. Biomarkers corresponding to erythrocytes and lymphocytes were lost during the primary extraction, and biomarkers corresponding to most granulocytes and progenitor cells were lost during the additional purification. Biomarkers identifying dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes were upregulated in purified cell populations while those identifying fibroblasts and adipocytes were downregulated. Pluripotency biomarkers were more highly expressed in purified cell populations. These results demonstrate that the most commonly utilized adipose tissue recovery and ASC extraction technique leads to a heterogeneous cell population in which further purification of this population, as described in this manuscript, isolates a cell subset that has more regenerative potential.
- adipose-derived stromal cells
- mesenchymal stem cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas