A review of synthetic methods for the production of upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles

Christian F. Gainer, Marek Romanowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles overcome many of the problems associated with more traditionally used luminescent contrast agents, such as photobleaching, autofluorescence, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity. For this reason, they are an attractive choice for biomedical imaging applications, particularly for imaging in living tissues. The last decade has seen numerous improvements to these nanocrystals, but a comprehensive guide to the synthesis of upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles has not yet been written. Methods vary from paper to paper and from group to group, and results vary between research groups for each method. For this reason, development of these nanoparticles remains a significant endeavor for any research group interested in joining the field. In this review, we look at the varying synthetic methods employed over the last decade and detail methodology for a select few that have been favored in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1330007
JournalJournal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences
Volume7
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Lanthanoid Series Elements
Rare earth elements
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
Luminescent Agents
Imaging techniques
Photobleaching
Cytotoxicity
Phototoxic Dermatitis
Joining
Nanocrystals
Contrast Media
Research
Tissue
nanocrystals
methodology
synthesis

Keywords

  • imaging
  • luminescence
  • nanocrystals
  • Rare earth
  • upconversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Cite this

A review of synthetic methods for the production of upconverting lanthanide nanoparticles. / Gainer, Christian F.; Romanowski, Marek.

In: Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1330007, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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