While doing summarization, human needs to understand the whole document, rather than separately understanding each sentence in the document. However, inter-sentence features within one document are not adequately modeled by previous neural network-based models that almost use only one layer recurrent neural network as document encoder. To learn high quality context-aware representation, we propose a shortcut-stacked document encoder for extractive summarization. We use multiple stacked bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) layers and add shortcut connections between LSTM layers to increase representation capacity. The shortcut-stacked document encoder is built on a temporal convolutional neural network-based sentence encoder to capture the hierarchical structure of the document. Then sentence representations encoded by document encoder are fed to a sentence selection classifier for summary extraction. Experiments on the well-known CNN/Daily Mail dataset show that the proposed model outperforms several recently proposed strong baselines, including both extractive and abstractive neural network-based models. Furthermore, the ablation analysis and position analysis also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed shortcut-stacked document encoder.