We retrace the development of a kinematic scaling relation, referred to as the Fundamental Manifold (FM), that addresses shortcomings of the commonly used fundamental plane in certain contexts. We then examine whether bulges separately satisfy the FM relation and discuss what the success or failure of such a match implies for the nature of classical- and pseudo-bulges. On the basis of this preliminary analysis we suggest that while classical bulges appear to be independent, dynamically complete subsystems within their host galaxies that satisfy the scaling relation, pseudobulges do not satisfy the scaling relation and so probably consist of an unrepresentative subset of disc stars. This is currently not a unique explanation of the results, but the use of kinematic scaling relations with larger samples, done in a more systematic manner, could lead to a more definitive resolution on the nature of bulges.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)