A Wrist-Worn Sensor-Derived Frailty Index Based on an Upper-Extremity Functional Test in Predicting Functional Mobility in Older Adults

Gu Eon Kang, Aanand D. Naik, Ravi K. Ghanta, Todd K. Rosengart, Bijan Najafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Preoperative frailty is an independent risk factor for postoperative complications across surgical specialties. Functional mobility such as gait, timed up and go (TUG), and 5 times sit-to-stand (5-STS) are popular preoperative frailty measurements but are not suitable for patients with severe mobility impairment. A wrist-worn sensor-derived frailty index based on an upper-extremity functional test (20-s repetitive elbow flexion-extension task; UEFI) was developed previously; however, its association with functional mobility remained unexplored. We aimed to investigate the predictive power of the UEFI in predicting functional mobility. Methods: We examined correlation between the UEFI and gait speed, TUG duration, and 5-STS duration in 100 older adults (≥ 65 years) using multivariate regression analysis. The UEFI was calculated using slowness, weakness, exhaustion, and flexibility of the sensor-based 20-s repetitive elbow flexion-extension task. Results: The UEFI was a significant predictor for gait speed and TUG duration and 5-STS duration (all R ≥ 0.60; all p < 0.001) with the variance (adjusted R2) of 35-37% for the dependent variables. The multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between the UEFI and gait speed (β = -0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [-1.19, -0.50]; p < 0.001) and TUG duration (β = 16.2; 95% CI = [9.59, 22.8]; p < 0.001) and 5-STS duration (β = 33.3; 95% CI = [23.6, 43.2]; p < 0.001), found after accounting for confounding variables (e.g., age and fear of falling scale). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the UEFI can be performed with a wrist-worn sensor and has been validated with other established measures of preoperative frailty. The UEFI can be applied in a wide variety of patients, regardless of mobility limitations, in an outpatient setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)753-761
Number of pages9
JournalGerontology
Volume67
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Keywords

  • Digital health
  • Frailty
  • Gait
  • Motor capacity
  • Risk of falling
  • Sit to stand
  • Timed up and go
  • Wearable sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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