Absorption, disposition kinetics, and metabolic pathways of cyclohexene oxide in the male Fischer 344 rat and female B6C3F1 mouse

John Michael Sauer, Jingqi Bao, Richard L. Smith, Thomas D. Mcclure, Michael Mayersohn, Usha Pillai, Michael L. Cunningham, I. Glenn Sipes

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Abstract

Cyclohexene oxide (CHO) is a monomer intermediate used in the synthesis of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. Although CHO has a variety of industrial uses where direct human exposure is possible, very little is known about its fate in the body. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of cyclohexene oxide after oral, intravenous, and dermal exposure in male Fischer 344 rats and female B6C3F1 mice. After intravenous administration of [14C]CHO (50 mg/kg), CHO was rapidly distributed, metabolized, and excreted into the urine. Plasma concentrations of CHO rapidly declined and were below the limit of detection within 60 min. Average (±SD) values for terminal disposition half-life, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state, and systemic body clearance were: 19.3 ± 1.6 min; 0.44 ± 0.08 liter/kg; and 31.3 ± 0.5 ml/kg * min, respectively. After oral administration of [14C]CHO (10 and 100 mg/kg), it was found that 14C-equivalents were rapidly excreted in the urine of both species. At 48 hr, the majority of the dose (73-93%) was recovered in urine, whereas fecal elimination accounted for only 2-5% of the dose. At no time after oral administration was parent CHO detected in the blood. However, its primary metabolite cyclohexane-1,2-diol was present for different lengths of time depending on the dose. Four metabolites were detected and identified in mouse urine by MS: cyclohexane- 1,2-diol; cyclohexane-1,2-diol-O-glucuronide; N-acetyl-S-(2- hydroxycyclohexyl)-L-cysteine; and cyclohexane-1,2-diol-O-sulfate. The sulfate conjugate was not present in rat urine. Topical application of [14C]CHO (60 mg/kg) provided poor absorption in both species. The majority of 14C-equivalents applied dermally were recovered from the charcoal skin trap (~90% of the dose). Only 4% of the dose was absorbed, and the major route of elimination was via the urine. To evaluate the toxicity of CHO, animals were given daily doses of CHO orally and topically for 28 days. No statistically significant changes in final body weights or relative organ weights were noted in rats or mice treated orally with CHO up to 100 mg/kg or up to 60 mg/kg when given topically. Very few lesions were found at necropsy, and none were considered compound related. In conclusion, regardless of route, CHO is rapidly eliminated and excreted into the urine. Furthermore, after either oral or dermal administration, it is unlikely that CHO reaches the systemic circulation intact due to its rapid metabolism, and is therefore unable to cause toxicity in the whole animal under the test conditions used in this study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-378
Number of pages8
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume25
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science

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    Sauer, J. M., Bao, J., Smith, R. L., Mcclure, T. D., Mayersohn, M., Pillai, U., Cunningham, M. L., & Sipes, I. G. (1997). Absorption, disposition kinetics, and metabolic pathways of cyclohexene oxide in the male Fischer 344 rat and female B6C3F1 mouse. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 25(3), 371-378.