Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia

Donald O. Mutti, G. Lynn Mitchell, John R. Hayes, Lisa A. Jones, Melvin L. Moeschberger, Susan A. Cotter, Robert N. Kleinstein, Ruth E. Manny, John D Twelker, Karla Zadnik, Sandral Hullett, Janene Sims, Raphael Weeks, Sandra Williams, LeeAndra Calvin, Melvin D. Shipp, Nina E. Friedman, Pamela Qualley, Suzanne M. Wickum, Ailene KimBronwen Mathis, Mamie Batres, Sally Henry, Janice M. Wensveen, Connie J. Crossnoe, Stephanie L. Tom, Jennifer A. McLeod, Julio C. Quiralte, Julie A. Yu, Raymond J. Chu, Carmen N. Barnhardt, Jessica Chang, Kristine Huang, Rebecca Bridgeford, Connie Chu, Soonsi Kwon, Gen Lee, John Lee, Robert Lee, Raymond Maeda, Rachael Emerson, Tracy Leonhardt, Dawn Messer, Denise Flores, Rita Bhakta, Jodi M. Malone, Huan Sheng, Holly Omlor, Meliha Rahmani, Jaclyn Brickman, Amy Wang, Philip Arner, Samuel Taylor, Myhanh T. Nguyen, Terry W. Walker, Linda Barrett, Loraine Sinnott, Pamela Wessel, Julie N. Swartzendruber, Donald F. Everett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

132 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE. To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS. The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating between 1995 and 2003 in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Accommodative lag was measured annually with either a Canon R-1 (Canon USA., Lake Success, NY; no longer manufactured) or a Grand Seiko WR 5100-K (Grand Seiko Co., Hiroshima, Japan) autorefractor. Subjects wore their habitual refractive corrections while viewing a letter target accommodative stimulus of 4 D (either in a Badal system or at 25 cm from the subject, designated Badal and near, respectively) or of 2 D (Badal only). Refractive error was measured with the same autorefractor in subjects under cycloplegia. Accommodative lag in children who became myopic was compared to age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates of emmetropic values for each annual visit from 5 years before, through 5 years after, the onset of myopia. RESULTS. In the sample as a whole, accommodative lag was not significantly different in children who became myopic compared with model estimates in emmetropes in any year before onset of myopia for either the 4-D or 2-D Badal stimulus. For the 4-D near target, there was only a greater amount of accommodative lag in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes 4 years before onset (difference, 0.22 D; P = 0.0002). Accommodative lag was not significantly elevated during the year of onset of myopia in any of the three measurement conditions (P < 0.82 for all three). A consistently higher lag was seen in children after the onset of their myopia (range, 0.13-0.56 D; P < 0.004 for all comparisons). These patterns were generally followed by each ethnic group, with Asian children typically showing the most, African-American and white children showing the least, and Hispanic children having intermediate accommodative lag. CONCLUSIONS. Substantive and consistent elevations in accommodative lag relative to model estimates of lag in emmetropes did not occur in children who became myopic before the onset of myopia or during the year of onset. Increased accommodative lag occurred in children after the onset of myopia. Elevated accommodative lag is unlikely to be a useful predictive factor for the onset of myopia. Increased hyperopic defocus from accommodative lag may be a consequence rather than a cause of myopia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-846
Number of pages10
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2006

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Myopia
Meridians
Refractive Errors
Lakes
Hispanic Americans
Ethnic Groups
African Americans
Japan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Mutti, D. O., Mitchell, G. L., Hayes, J. R., Jones, L. A., Moeschberger, M. L., Cotter, S. A., ... Everett, D. F. (2006). Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(3), 837-846. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0888

Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. / Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Hayes, John R.; Jones, Lisa A.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Twelker, John D; Zadnik, Karla; Hullett, Sandral; Sims, Janene; Weeks, Raphael; Williams, Sandra; Calvin, LeeAndra; Shipp, Melvin D.; Friedman, Nina E.; Qualley, Pamela; Wickum, Suzanne M.; Kim, Ailene; Mathis, Bronwen; Batres, Mamie; Henry, Sally; Wensveen, Janice M.; Crossnoe, Connie J.; Tom, Stephanie L.; McLeod, Jennifer A.; Quiralte, Julio C.; Yu, Julie A.; Chu, Raymond J.; Barnhardt, Carmen N.; Chang, Jessica; Huang, Kristine; Bridgeford, Rebecca; Chu, Connie; Kwon, Soonsi; Lee, Gen; Lee, John; Lee, Robert; Maeda, Raymond; Emerson, Rachael; Leonhardt, Tracy; Messer, Dawn; Flores, Denise; Bhakta, Rita; Malone, Jodi M.; Sheng, Huan; Omlor, Holly; Rahmani, Meliha; Brickman, Jaclyn; Wang, Amy; Arner, Philip; Taylor, Samuel; Nguyen, Myhanh T.; Walker, Terry W.; Barrett, Linda; Sinnott, Loraine; Wessel, Pamela; Swartzendruber, Julie N.; Everett, Donald F.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 47, No. 3, 03.2006, p. 837-846.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mutti, DO, Mitchell, GL, Hayes, JR, Jones, LA, Moeschberger, ML, Cotter, SA, Kleinstein, RN, Manny, RE, Twelker, JD, Zadnik, K, Hullett, S, Sims, J, Weeks, R, Williams, S, Calvin, L, Shipp, MD, Friedman, NE, Qualley, P, Wickum, SM, Kim, A, Mathis, B, Batres, M, Henry, S, Wensveen, JM, Crossnoe, CJ, Tom, SL, McLeod, JA, Quiralte, JC, Yu, JA, Chu, RJ, Barnhardt, CN, Chang, J, Huang, K, Bridgeford, R, Chu, C, Kwon, S, Lee, G, Lee, J, Lee, R, Maeda, R, Emerson, R, Leonhardt, T, Messer, D, Flores, D, Bhakta, R, Malone, JM, Sheng, H, Omlor, H, Rahmani, M, Brickman, J, Wang, A, Arner, P, Taylor, S, Nguyen, MT, Walker, TW, Barrett, L, Sinnott, L, Wessel, P, Swartzendruber, JN & Everett, DF 2006, 'Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 837-846. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0888
Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Hayes JR, Jones LA, Moeschberger ML, Cotter SA et al. Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2006 Mar;47(3):837-846. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0888
Mutti, Donald O. ; Mitchell, G. Lynn ; Hayes, John R. ; Jones, Lisa A. ; Moeschberger, Melvin L. ; Cotter, Susan A. ; Kleinstein, Robert N. ; Manny, Ruth E. ; Twelker, John D ; Zadnik, Karla ; Hullett, Sandral ; Sims, Janene ; Weeks, Raphael ; Williams, Sandra ; Calvin, LeeAndra ; Shipp, Melvin D. ; Friedman, Nina E. ; Qualley, Pamela ; Wickum, Suzanne M. ; Kim, Ailene ; Mathis, Bronwen ; Batres, Mamie ; Henry, Sally ; Wensveen, Janice M. ; Crossnoe, Connie J. ; Tom, Stephanie L. ; McLeod, Jennifer A. ; Quiralte, Julio C. ; Yu, Julie A. ; Chu, Raymond J. ; Barnhardt, Carmen N. ; Chang, Jessica ; Huang, Kristine ; Bridgeford, Rebecca ; Chu, Connie ; Kwon, Soonsi ; Lee, Gen ; Lee, John ; Lee, Robert ; Maeda, Raymond ; Emerson, Rachael ; Leonhardt, Tracy ; Messer, Dawn ; Flores, Denise ; Bhakta, Rita ; Malone, Jodi M. ; Sheng, Huan ; Omlor, Holly ; Rahmani, Meliha ; Brickman, Jaclyn ; Wang, Amy ; Arner, Philip ; Taylor, Samuel ; Nguyen, Myhanh T. ; Walker, Terry W. ; Barrett, Linda ; Sinnott, Loraine ; Wessel, Pamela ; Swartzendruber, Julie N. ; Everett, Donald F. / Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2006 ; Vol. 47, No. 3. pp. 837-846.
@article{5293432924174dd0b8c8a557b4a419dc,
title = "Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia",
abstract = "PURPOSE. To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS. The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating between 1995 and 2003 in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Accommodative lag was measured annually with either a Canon R-1 (Canon USA., Lake Success, NY; no longer manufactured) or a Grand Seiko WR 5100-K (Grand Seiko Co., Hiroshima, Japan) autorefractor. Subjects wore their habitual refractive corrections while viewing a letter target accommodative stimulus of 4 D (either in a Badal system or at 25 cm from the subject, designated Badal and near, respectively) or of 2 D (Badal only). Refractive error was measured with the same autorefractor in subjects under cycloplegia. Accommodative lag in children who became myopic was compared to age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates of emmetropic values for each annual visit from 5 years before, through 5 years after, the onset of myopia. RESULTS. In the sample as a whole, accommodative lag was not significantly different in children who became myopic compared with model estimates in emmetropes in any year before onset of myopia for either the 4-D or 2-D Badal stimulus. For the 4-D near target, there was only a greater amount of accommodative lag in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes 4 years before onset (difference, 0.22 D; P = 0.0002). Accommodative lag was not significantly elevated during the year of onset of myopia in any of the three measurement conditions (P < 0.82 for all three). A consistently higher lag was seen in children after the onset of their myopia (range, 0.13-0.56 D; P < 0.004 for all comparisons). These patterns were generally followed by each ethnic group, with Asian children typically showing the most, African-American and white children showing the least, and Hispanic children having intermediate accommodative lag. CONCLUSIONS. Substantive and consistent elevations in accommodative lag relative to model estimates of lag in emmetropes did not occur in children who became myopic before the onset of myopia or during the year of onset. Increased accommodative lag occurred in children after the onset of myopia. Elevated accommodative lag is unlikely to be a useful predictive factor for the onset of myopia. Increased hyperopic defocus from accommodative lag may be a consequence rather than a cause of myopia.",
author = "Mutti, {Donald O.} and Mitchell, {G. Lynn} and Hayes, {John R.} and Jones, {Lisa A.} and Moeschberger, {Melvin L.} and Cotter, {Susan A.} and Kleinstein, {Robert N.} and Manny, {Ruth E.} and Twelker, {John D} and Karla Zadnik and Sandral Hullett and Janene Sims and Raphael Weeks and Sandra Williams and LeeAndra Calvin and Shipp, {Melvin D.} and Friedman, {Nina E.} and Pamela Qualley and Wickum, {Suzanne M.} and Ailene Kim and Bronwen Mathis and Mamie Batres and Sally Henry and Wensveen, {Janice M.} and Crossnoe, {Connie J.} and Tom, {Stephanie L.} and McLeod, {Jennifer A.} and Quiralte, {Julio C.} and Yu, {Julie A.} and Chu, {Raymond J.} and Barnhardt, {Carmen N.} and Jessica Chang and Kristine Huang and Rebecca Bridgeford and Connie Chu and Soonsi Kwon and Gen Lee and John Lee and Robert Lee and Raymond Maeda and Rachael Emerson and Tracy Leonhardt and Dawn Messer and Denise Flores and Rita Bhakta and Malone, {Jodi M.} and Huan Sheng and Holly Omlor and Meliha Rahmani and Jaclyn Brickman and Amy Wang and Philip Arner and Samuel Taylor and Nguyen, {Myhanh T.} and Walker, {Terry W.} and Linda Barrett and Loraine Sinnott and Pamela Wessel and Swartzendruber, {Julie N.} and Everett, {Donald F.}",
year = "2006",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1167/iovs.05-0888",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "837--846",
journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science",
issn = "0146-0404",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Accommodative lag before and after the onset of myopia

AU - Mutti, Donald O.

AU - Mitchell, G. Lynn

AU - Hayes, John R.

AU - Jones, Lisa A.

AU - Moeschberger, Melvin L.

AU - Cotter, Susan A.

AU - Kleinstein, Robert N.

AU - Manny, Ruth E.

AU - Twelker, John D

AU - Zadnik, Karla

AU - Hullett, Sandral

AU - Sims, Janene

AU - Weeks, Raphael

AU - Williams, Sandra

AU - Calvin, LeeAndra

AU - Shipp, Melvin D.

AU - Friedman, Nina E.

AU - Qualley, Pamela

AU - Wickum, Suzanne M.

AU - Kim, Ailene

AU - Mathis, Bronwen

AU - Batres, Mamie

AU - Henry, Sally

AU - Wensveen, Janice M.

AU - Crossnoe, Connie J.

AU - Tom, Stephanie L.

AU - McLeod, Jennifer A.

AU - Quiralte, Julio C.

AU - Yu, Julie A.

AU - Chu, Raymond J.

AU - Barnhardt, Carmen N.

AU - Chang, Jessica

AU - Huang, Kristine

AU - Bridgeford, Rebecca

AU - Chu, Connie

AU - Kwon, Soonsi

AU - Lee, Gen

AU - Lee, John

AU - Lee, Robert

AU - Maeda, Raymond

AU - Emerson, Rachael

AU - Leonhardt, Tracy

AU - Messer, Dawn

AU - Flores, Denise

AU - Bhakta, Rita

AU - Malone, Jodi M.

AU - Sheng, Huan

AU - Omlor, Holly

AU - Rahmani, Meliha

AU - Brickman, Jaclyn

AU - Wang, Amy

AU - Arner, Philip

AU - Taylor, Samuel

AU - Nguyen, Myhanh T.

AU - Walker, Terry W.

AU - Barrett, Linda

AU - Sinnott, Loraine

AU - Wessel, Pamela

AU - Swartzendruber, Julie N.

AU - Everett, Donald F.

PY - 2006/3

Y1 - 2006/3

N2 - PURPOSE. To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS. The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating between 1995 and 2003 in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Accommodative lag was measured annually with either a Canon R-1 (Canon USA., Lake Success, NY; no longer manufactured) or a Grand Seiko WR 5100-K (Grand Seiko Co., Hiroshima, Japan) autorefractor. Subjects wore their habitual refractive corrections while viewing a letter target accommodative stimulus of 4 D (either in a Badal system or at 25 cm from the subject, designated Badal and near, respectively) or of 2 D (Badal only). Refractive error was measured with the same autorefractor in subjects under cycloplegia. Accommodative lag in children who became myopic was compared to age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates of emmetropic values for each annual visit from 5 years before, through 5 years after, the onset of myopia. RESULTS. In the sample as a whole, accommodative lag was not significantly different in children who became myopic compared with model estimates in emmetropes in any year before onset of myopia for either the 4-D or 2-D Badal stimulus. For the 4-D near target, there was only a greater amount of accommodative lag in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes 4 years before onset (difference, 0.22 D; P = 0.0002). Accommodative lag was not significantly elevated during the year of onset of myopia in any of the three measurement conditions (P < 0.82 for all three). A consistently higher lag was seen in children after the onset of their myopia (range, 0.13-0.56 D; P < 0.004 for all comparisons). These patterns were generally followed by each ethnic group, with Asian children typically showing the most, African-American and white children showing the least, and Hispanic children having intermediate accommodative lag. CONCLUSIONS. Substantive and consistent elevations in accommodative lag relative to model estimates of lag in emmetropes did not occur in children who became myopic before the onset of myopia or during the year of onset. Increased accommodative lag occurred in children after the onset of myopia. Elevated accommodative lag is unlikely to be a useful predictive factor for the onset of myopia. Increased hyperopic defocus from accommodative lag may be a consequence rather than a cause of myopia.

AB - PURPOSE. To evaluate accommodative lag before, during the year of, and after the onset of myopia in children who became myopic, compared with emmetropes. METHODS. The subjects were 568 children who became myopic (at least -0.75 D in each meridian) and 539 children who were emmetropic (between -0.25 D and +1.00 D in each meridian at all visits) participating between 1995 and 2003 in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Accommodative lag was measured annually with either a Canon R-1 (Canon USA., Lake Success, NY; no longer manufactured) or a Grand Seiko WR 5100-K (Grand Seiko Co., Hiroshima, Japan) autorefractor. Subjects wore their habitual refractive corrections while viewing a letter target accommodative stimulus of 4 D (either in a Badal system or at 25 cm from the subject, designated Badal and near, respectively) or of 2 D (Badal only). Refractive error was measured with the same autorefractor in subjects under cycloplegia. Accommodative lag in children who became myopic was compared to age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates of emmetropic values for each annual visit from 5 years before, through 5 years after, the onset of myopia. RESULTS. In the sample as a whole, accommodative lag was not significantly different in children who became myopic compared with model estimates in emmetropes in any year before onset of myopia for either the 4-D or 2-D Badal stimulus. For the 4-D near target, there was only a greater amount of accommodative lag in children who became myopic compared with emmetropes 4 years before onset (difference, 0.22 D; P = 0.0002). Accommodative lag was not significantly elevated during the year of onset of myopia in any of the three measurement conditions (P < 0.82 for all three). A consistently higher lag was seen in children after the onset of their myopia (range, 0.13-0.56 D; P < 0.004 for all comparisons). These patterns were generally followed by each ethnic group, with Asian children typically showing the most, African-American and white children showing the least, and Hispanic children having intermediate accommodative lag. CONCLUSIONS. Substantive and consistent elevations in accommodative lag relative to model estimates of lag in emmetropes did not occur in children who became myopic before the onset of myopia or during the year of onset. Increased accommodative lag occurred in children after the onset of myopia. Elevated accommodative lag is unlikely to be a useful predictive factor for the onset of myopia. Increased hyperopic defocus from accommodative lag may be a consequence rather than a cause of myopia.

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