Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract

Brad H Story, Anne Maria Laukkanen, Ingo R. Titze

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

125 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Voice training techniques often make use of exercises involving partial occlusion of the vocal tract, typically at the anterior part of the oral cavity or at the lips. In this study two techniques are investigated: a bilabial fricative and a small diameter hard-walled tube placed between the lips. Because the input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is known to affect both the shaping of the glottal flow pulse and the vibrational pattern of the vocal folds, a study of the input impedance is an essential step in understanding the benefits of these two techniques. The input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract was investigated theoretically for cases of a vowel, bilabial occlusion (fully closed lips), a bilabial fricative, and artificially lengthening the tract with small diameter tubes. The results indicate that the tubes increase the input impedance in the range of the fundamental frequency of phonation by lowering the first formant frequency to nearly that of the bilabial occlusion (the lower bound on the first formant) while still allowing a continuous airflow. The bilabial fricative also has the effect of lowering the first formant frequency and increasing the low-frequency impedance, but not as effectively as the extension tubes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-469
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Voice
Volume14
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Electric Impedance
Acoustics
Lip
Voice Training
Phonation
Vocal Cords
Mouth
Teaching

Keywords

  • Impedance
  • Inertance
  • Resonance tubes
  • Vocal tract
  • Voice training techniques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. / Story, Brad H; Laukkanen, Anne Maria; Titze, Ingo R.

In: Journal of Voice, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2000, p. 455-469.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Story, BH, Laukkanen, AM & Titze, IR 2000, 'Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract', Journal of Voice, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 455-469.
Story, Brad H ; Laukkanen, Anne Maria ; Titze, Ingo R. / Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. In: Journal of Voice. 2000 ; Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 455-469.
@article{9bdca8b1728e46be86b54e384d6e7f12,
title = "Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract",
abstract = "Voice training techniques often make use of exercises involving partial occlusion of the vocal tract, typically at the anterior part of the oral cavity or at the lips. In this study two techniques are investigated: a bilabial fricative and a small diameter hard-walled tube placed between the lips. Because the input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is known to affect both the shaping of the glottal flow pulse and the vibrational pattern of the vocal folds, a study of the input impedance is an essential step in understanding the benefits of these two techniques. The input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract was investigated theoretically for cases of a vowel, bilabial occlusion (fully closed lips), a bilabial fricative, and artificially lengthening the tract with small diameter tubes. The results indicate that the tubes increase the input impedance in the range of the fundamental frequency of phonation by lowering the first formant frequency to nearly that of the bilabial occlusion (the lower bound on the first formant) while still allowing a continuous airflow. The bilabial fricative also has the effect of lowering the first formant frequency and increasing the low-frequency impedance, but not as effectively as the extension tubes.",
keywords = "Impedance, Inertance, Resonance tubes, Vocal tract, Voice training techniques",
author = "Story, {Brad H} and Laukkanen, {Anne Maria} and Titze, {Ingo R.}",
year = "2000",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "455--469",
journal = "Journal of Voice",
issn = "0892-1997",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract

AU - Story, Brad H

AU - Laukkanen, Anne Maria

AU - Titze, Ingo R.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - Voice training techniques often make use of exercises involving partial occlusion of the vocal tract, typically at the anterior part of the oral cavity or at the lips. In this study two techniques are investigated: a bilabial fricative and a small diameter hard-walled tube placed between the lips. Because the input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is known to affect both the shaping of the glottal flow pulse and the vibrational pattern of the vocal folds, a study of the input impedance is an essential step in understanding the benefits of these two techniques. The input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract was investigated theoretically for cases of a vowel, bilabial occlusion (fully closed lips), a bilabial fricative, and artificially lengthening the tract with small diameter tubes. The results indicate that the tubes increase the input impedance in the range of the fundamental frequency of phonation by lowering the first formant frequency to nearly that of the bilabial occlusion (the lower bound on the first formant) while still allowing a continuous airflow. The bilabial fricative also has the effect of lowering the first formant frequency and increasing the low-frequency impedance, but not as effectively as the extension tubes.

AB - Voice training techniques often make use of exercises involving partial occlusion of the vocal tract, typically at the anterior part of the oral cavity or at the lips. In this study two techniques are investigated: a bilabial fricative and a small diameter hard-walled tube placed between the lips. Because the input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract is known to affect both the shaping of the glottal flow pulse and the vibrational pattern of the vocal folds, a study of the input impedance is an essential step in understanding the benefits of these two techniques. The input acoustic impedance of the vocal tract was investigated theoretically for cases of a vowel, bilabial occlusion (fully closed lips), a bilabial fricative, and artificially lengthening the tract with small diameter tubes. The results indicate that the tubes increase the input impedance in the range of the fundamental frequency of phonation by lowering the first formant frequency to nearly that of the bilabial occlusion (the lower bound on the first formant) while still allowing a continuous airflow. The bilabial fricative also has the effect of lowering the first formant frequency and increasing the low-frequency impedance, but not as effectively as the extension tubes.

KW - Impedance

KW - Inertance

KW - Resonance tubes

KW - Vocal tract

KW - Voice training techniques

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033622507&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033622507&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 455

EP - 469

JO - Journal of Voice

JF - Journal of Voice

SN - 0892-1997

IS - 4

ER -