Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and the consequent induction of transformation by overexpressed 14-3-3γ protein require specific amino acids within 14-3-3γN-terminal variable region II

Vijayababu M. Radhakrishnan, Charles W. Putnam, Jesse D. Martinez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Members of the 14-3-3 superfamily regulate numerous cellular functions by binding phosphoproteins. The seven human isoforms (and the myriad of other eukaryotic 14-3-3 proteins) are highly conserved in amino acid sequence and secondary structure, yet there is abundant evidence that the various isoforms manifest disparate as well as common functions. Several of the human 14-3-3 isoforms are dysregulated in certain cancers and thus have been implicated in oncogenesis; experimentally, 14-3-3γ behaves as an oncogene, whereas 14-3-3σ acts as a tumor suppressor. In this study, we sought to localize these opposing phenotypes to specific regions of the two isoforms and then to individual amino acids therein. Using a bioinformatics approach, six variable regions (VRI-VRVI) were identified. Using this information, two sets of constructs were created in which N-terminal portions (including either VRI-IV or only VRI and VRII) of 14-3-3γ and 14-3-3σ were swapped; NIH3T3 cells overexpressing the four chimeric proteins were tested for transformation activity (focus formation, growth in soft agar) and activation of PI3K and MAPK signaling. We found that the specific phenotypes of 14-3-3γ are associated with the N-terminal 40 amino acids (VRI and VRII); in like fashion, VRI and VRII of 14-3-3σ dictated its tumor suppressor function. Using individual amino acid substitutions within the 14-3-3γ VRII, we identified two residues required for and two contributing to the γ-specific phenotypes. Our observations suggest that isoform-specific phenotypes are dictated by a relatively few amino acids within variable regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43300-43311
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume287
Issue number52
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 21 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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