Aircraft Measurements of Total Mercury and Monomethyl Mercury in Summertime Marine Stratus Cloudwater from Coastal California, USA

Peter Weiss-Penzias, Armin Sorooshian, Kenneth Coale, Wesley Heim, Ewan Crosbie, Hossein Dadashazar, Alexander B. Macdonald, Zhen Wang, Haflidi Jonsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Water samples from marine stratus clouds were collected during 16 aircraft flights above the Pacific Ocean near the Central California coast during the summer of 2016. These samples were analyzed for total mercury (THg), monomethyl mercury (MMHg), and 32 other chemical species in addition to aerosol physical parameters. The mean concentrations of THg and MMHg in the cloudwater samples were 9.2 ± 6.0 ng L-1 (2.3-33.8 ng L-1) (N = 97) and 0.87 ± 0.66 ng L-1 (0.17-2.9 ng L-1) (N = 22), respectively. This corresponds to 9.5% (3-21%) MMHg as a fraction of THg. Low and high nonsea salt calcium ion (nss-Ca2+) concentrations in cloudwater were used to classify flights as "marine" and "continental", respectively. Mean [MMHg]marine was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than [MMHg]continental consistent with an ocean source of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) to the atmosphere. Mean THg in cloudwater was not significantly different between the two categories, indicating multiple emissions sources. Mean [THg]continental was correlated with pH, CO, NO3 -, NH4 +, and other trace metals, whereas [THg]marine was correlated with MMHg and Na+. THg concentrations were negatively correlated with altitude, consistent with ocean and land emissions, coupled with removal at the cloud-top due to drizzle formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2527-2537
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume52
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 6 2018

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stratus
airborne survey
Mercury
Aircraft
ocean
Carbon Monoxide
Aerosols
flight
Coastal zones
drizzle
Salts
Ions
Calcium
trace metal
Water
aircraft
calcium
aerosol
salt
ion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Aircraft Measurements of Total Mercury and Monomethyl Mercury in Summertime Marine Stratus Cloudwater from Coastal California, USA. / Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Sorooshian, Armin; Coale, Kenneth; Heim, Wesley; Crosbie, Ewan; Dadashazar, Hossein; Macdonald, Alexander B.; Wang, Zhen; Jonsson, Haflidi.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 52, No. 5, 06.03.2018, p. 2527-2537.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weiss-Penzias, Peter ; Sorooshian, Armin ; Coale, Kenneth ; Heim, Wesley ; Crosbie, Ewan ; Dadashazar, Hossein ; Macdonald, Alexander B. ; Wang, Zhen ; Jonsson, Haflidi. / Aircraft Measurements of Total Mercury and Monomethyl Mercury in Summertime Marine Stratus Cloudwater from Coastal California, USA. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2018 ; Vol. 52, No. 5. pp. 2527-2537.
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