Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

A. Wei, C. De Breuck, Daniel P Marrone, J. D. Vieira, J. E. Aguirre, K. A. Aird, M. Aravena, M. L N Ashby, M. Bayliss, B. A. Benson, M. Béthermin, A. D. Biggs, L. E. Bleem, J. J. Bock, M. Bothwell, C. M. Bradford, M. Brodwin, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, S. C. ChapmanT. M. Crawford, A. T. Crites, T. De Haan, M. A. Dobbs, T. P. Downes, C. D. Fassnacht, E. M. George, M. D. Gladders, A. H. Gonzalez, T. R. Greve, N. W. Halverson, Y. D. Hezaveh, F. W. High, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, S. Hoover, J. D. Hrubes, K. Husband, R. Keisler, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, M. Lueker, D. Luong-Van, M. Malkan, V. McIntyre, J. J. McMahon, J. Mehl, K. M. Menten, S. S. Meyer, E. J. Murphy, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. L. Reichardt, A. Rest, M. Rosenman, J. Ruel, J. E. Ruhl, K. K. Schaffer, E. Shirokoff, J. S. Spilker, B. Stalder, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, K. Story, K. Vanderlinde, N. Welikala, R. Williamson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

103 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S1.4 mm > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S843 MHz < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S 100 μm < 1 Jy, S60 μm < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of 12CO, 13CO, C I, H2O, and H2O +. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a ∼90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for ∼70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of = 2.3 and for which only 10%-15% of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number88
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume767
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 10 2013

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galaxies
stars
poles
dust
telescopes
radio
distribution
effect

Keywords

  • cosmology: observations
  • early universe
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • ISM:molecules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey : The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies. / Wei, A.; De Breuck, C.; Marrone, Daniel P; Vieira, J. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L N; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Béthermin, M.; Biggs, A. D.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bothwell, M.; Bradford, C. M.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Downes, T. P.; Fassnacht, C. D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Halverson, N. W.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; High, F. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Husband, K.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Malkan, M.; McIntyre, V.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Murphy, E. J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Rosenman, M.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spilker, J. S.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Welikala, N.; Williamson, R.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 767, No. 1, 88, 10.04.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wei, A, De Breuck, C, Marrone, DP, Vieira, JD, Aguirre, JE, Aird, KA, Aravena, M, Ashby, MLN, Bayliss, M, Benson, BA, Béthermin, M, Biggs, AD, Bleem, LE, Bock, JJ, Bothwell, M, Bradford, CM, Brodwin, M, Carlstrom, JE, Chang, CL, Chapman, SC, Crawford, TM, Crites, AT, De Haan, T, Dobbs, MA, Downes, TP, Fassnacht, CD, George, EM, Gladders, MD, Gonzalez, AH, Greve, TR, Halverson, NW, Hezaveh, YD, High, FW, Holder, GP, Holzapfel, WL, Hoover, S, Hrubes, JD, Husband, K, Keisler, R, Lee, AT, Leitch, EM, Lueker, M, Luong-Van, D, Malkan, M, McIntyre, V, McMahon, JJ, Mehl, J, Menten, KM, Meyer, SS, Murphy, EJ, Padin, S, Plagge, T, Reichardt, CL, Rest, A, Rosenman, M, Ruel, J, Ruhl, JE, Schaffer, KK, Shirokoff, E, Spilker, JS, Stalder, B, Staniszewski, Z, Stark, AA, Story, K, Vanderlinde, K, Welikala, N & Williamson, R 2013, 'Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 767, no. 1, 88. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/88
Wei, A. ; De Breuck, C. ; Marrone, Daniel P ; Vieira, J. D. ; Aguirre, J. E. ; Aird, K. A. ; Aravena, M. ; Ashby, M. L N ; Bayliss, M. ; Benson, B. A. ; Béthermin, M. ; Biggs, A. D. ; Bleem, L. E. ; Bock, J. J. ; Bothwell, M. ; Bradford, C. M. ; Brodwin, M. ; Carlstrom, J. E. ; Chang, C. L. ; Chapman, S. C. ; Crawford, T. M. ; Crites, A. T. ; De Haan, T. ; Dobbs, M. A. ; Downes, T. P. ; Fassnacht, C. D. ; George, E. M. ; Gladders, M. D. ; Gonzalez, A. H. ; Greve, T. R. ; Halverson, N. W. ; Hezaveh, Y. D. ; High, F. W. ; Holder, G. P. ; Holzapfel, W. L. ; Hoover, S. ; Hrubes, J. D. ; Husband, K. ; Keisler, R. ; Lee, A. T. ; Leitch, E. M. ; Lueker, M. ; Luong-Van, D. ; Malkan, M. ; McIntyre, V. ; McMahon, J. J. ; Mehl, J. ; Menten, K. M. ; Meyer, S. S. ; Murphy, E. J. ; Padin, S. ; Plagge, T. ; Reichardt, C. L. ; Rest, A. ; Rosenman, M. ; Ruel, J. ; Ruhl, J. E. ; Schaffer, K. K. ; Shirokoff, E. ; Spilker, J. S. ; Stalder, B. ; Staniszewski, Z. ; Stark, A. A. ; Story, K. ; Vanderlinde, K. ; Welikala, N. ; Williamson, R. / Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey : The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 767, No. 1.
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title = "Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies",
abstract = "Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S1.4 mm > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S843 MHz < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S 100 μm < 1 Jy, S60 μm < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of 12CO, 13CO, C I, H2O, and H2O +. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a ∼90{\%} detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for ∼70{\%} of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of = 2.3 and for which only 10{\%}-15{\%} of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.",
keywords = "cosmology: observations, early universe, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high-redshift, ISM:molecules",
author = "A. Wei and {De Breuck}, C. and Marrone, {Daniel P} and Vieira, {J. D.} and Aguirre, {J. E.} and Aird, {K. A.} and M. Aravena and Ashby, {M. L N} and M. Bayliss and Benson, {B. A.} and M. B{\'e}thermin and Biggs, {A. D.} and Bleem, {L. E.} and Bock, {J. J.} and M. Bothwell and Bradford, {C. M.} and M. Brodwin and Carlstrom, {J. E.} and Chang, {C. L.} and Chapman, {S. C.} and Crawford, {T. M.} and Crites, {A. T.} and {De Haan}, T. and Dobbs, {M. A.} and Downes, {T. P.} and Fassnacht, {C. D.} and George, {E. M.} and Gladders, {M. D.} and Gonzalez, {A. H.} and Greve, {T. R.} and Halverson, {N. W.} and Hezaveh, {Y. D.} and High, {F. W.} and Holder, {G. P.} and Holzapfel, {W. L.} and S. Hoover and Hrubes, {J. D.} and K. Husband and R. Keisler and Lee, {A. T.} and Leitch, {E. M.} and M. Lueker and D. Luong-Van and M. Malkan and V. McIntyre and McMahon, {J. J.} and J. Mehl and Menten, {K. M.} and Meyer, {S. S.} and Murphy, {E. J.} and S. Padin and T. Plagge and Reichardt, {C. L.} and A. Rest and M. Rosenman and J. Ruel and Ruhl, {J. E.} and Schaffer, {K. K.} and E. Shirokoff and Spilker, {J. S.} and B. Stalder and Z. Staniszewski and Stark, {A. A.} and K. Story and K. Vanderlinde and N. Welikala and R. Williamson",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Alma redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey

T2 - The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

AU - Wei, A.

AU - De Breuck, C.

AU - Marrone, Daniel P

AU - Vieira, J. D.

AU - Aguirre, J. E.

AU - Aird, K. A.

AU - Aravena, M.

AU - Ashby, M. L N

AU - Bayliss, M.

AU - Benson, B. A.

AU - Béthermin, M.

AU - Biggs, A. D.

AU - Bleem, L. E.

AU - Bock, J. J.

AU - Bothwell, M.

AU - Bradford, C. M.

AU - Brodwin, M.

AU - Carlstrom, J. E.

AU - Chang, C. L.

AU - Chapman, S. C.

AU - Crawford, T. M.

AU - Crites, A. T.

AU - De Haan, T.

AU - Dobbs, M. A.

AU - Downes, T. P.

AU - Fassnacht, C. D.

AU - George, E. M.

AU - Gladders, M. D.

AU - Gonzalez, A. H.

AU - Greve, T. R.

AU - Halverson, N. W.

AU - Hezaveh, Y. D.

AU - High, F. W.

AU - Holder, G. P.

AU - Holzapfel, W. L.

AU - Hoover, S.

AU - Hrubes, J. D.

AU - Husband, K.

AU - Keisler, R.

AU - Lee, A. T.

AU - Leitch, E. M.

AU - Lueker, M.

AU - Luong-Van, D.

AU - Malkan, M.

AU - McIntyre, V.

AU - McMahon, J. J.

AU - Mehl, J.

AU - Menten, K. M.

AU - Meyer, S. S.

AU - Murphy, E. J.

AU - Padin, S.

AU - Plagge, T.

AU - Reichardt, C. L.

AU - Rest, A.

AU - Rosenman, M.

AU - Ruel, J.

AU - Ruhl, J. E.

AU - Schaffer, K. K.

AU - Shirokoff, E.

AU - Spilker, J. S.

AU - Stalder, B.

AU - Staniszewski, Z.

AU - Stark, A. A.

AU - Story, K.

AU - Vanderlinde, K.

AU - Welikala, N.

AU - Williamson, R.

PY - 2013/4/10

Y1 - 2013/4/10

N2 - Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S1.4 mm > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S843 MHz < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S 100 μm < 1 Jy, S60 μm < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of 12CO, 13CO, C I, H2O, and H2O +. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a ∼90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for ∼70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of = 2.3 and for which only 10%-15% of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

AB - Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope. The sources were selected to have S1.4 mm > 20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S843 MHz < 6 mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S 100 μm < 1 Jy, S60 μm < 200 mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of 12CO, 13CO, C I, H2O, and H2O +. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a ∼90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for ∼70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7 < z < 2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is = 3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of = 2.3 and for which only 10%-15% of the population is expected to be at z > 3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

KW - cosmology: observations

KW - early universe

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: high-redshift

KW - ISM:molecules

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