An AFM has been applied to study in situ the adsorption of oleic acid on fluorite in aqueous solutions. The AFM images show that fluorite surface becomes smoother with the adsorption of 7 × 10-5M oleic acid solution at pH 9. Force measurement shows that fluorite is strongly positively charged in water at pH6 ,suggesting a neglectable surface carbonation of fluorite. The adsorption of oleic acid at pH 9 renders fluorite more and more negatively charged. The surface morphology change of fluorite as shown by the AFM images suggests that oleic acid chemisorbs on fluorite at pH 9. Increasing temperature can help increase the adsorption of oleic acid on fluorite. It may also improve the lateral polymerization of unsaturated oleic acid on fluorite as suggested by the smoother mineral surface in oleic acid solutions at an elevated temperature.