An algebraic restoration method for estimating fixed-pattern noise in infrared imagery from a video sequence

Ünal Sakoǧlu, Russell C. Hardie, Majeed M. Hayat, Bradley M. Ratliff, J. Scott Tyo

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The inherent nonuniformity in the photoresponse and readout-circuitry of the individual detectors in infrared focal-plane-array imagers result in the notorious fixed-pattern noise (FPN). FPN generally degrades the performance of infrared imagers and it is particularly problematic in the midwavelength and longwavelength infrared regimes. In many applications, employing signal-processing techniques to combat FPN may be preferred over hard calibration (e.g., two-point calibration), as they are less expensive and, more importantly, do not require halting the operation of the camera. In this paper, a new technique that uses knowledge of global motion in a video sequence to restore the true scene in the presence of FPN is introduced. In the proposed setting, the entire video sequence is regarded as an output of a motion-dependent linear transformation, which acts collectively on the true scene and the unknown bias elements (which represent the FPN) in each detector. The true scene is then estimated from the video sequence according to a minimum mean-square-error criterion. Two modes of operation are considered. First, we consider non-radiometric restoration, in which case the true scene is estimated by performing a regularized minimization, since the problem is ill-posed. The other mode of operation is radiometric, in which case we assume that only the perimeter detectors have been calibrated. This latter mode does not require regularization and therefore avoids compromising the radiometric accuracy of the restored scene. The algorithm is demonstrated through preliminary results from simulated and real infrared imagery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12
Pages (from-to)69-79
Number of pages11
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue numberPART 1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004
EventApplications of Digital Image Processing XXVII - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: Aug 2 2004Aug 6 2004


  • Fixed-pattern noise
  • Focal plane arrays
  • Infrared photodetectors
  • Nonuniformity correction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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