An assessment of global and regional sea level for years 1993-2007 in a suite of interannual core-II simulations

Stephen M. Griffies, Jianjun Yin, Paul J. Durack, Paul Goddard, Susan C. Bates, Erik Behrens, Mats Bentsen, Daohua Bi, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Alexandra Bozec, Eric Chassignet, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Sergey Danilov, Catia M. Domingues, Helge Drange, Riccardo Farneti, Elodie Fernandez, Richard J. Greatbatch, David M. HollandMehmet Ilicak, William G. Large, Katja Lorbacher, Jianhua Lu, Simon J. Marsland, Akhilesh Mishra, A. J. George Nurser, David Salas y Mélia, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Jens Schröter, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Dmitry Sidorenko, Anne Marie Treguier, Yu heng Tseng, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Petteri Uotila, Sophie Valcke, Aurore Voldoire, Qiang Wang, Michael Winton, Xuebin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We provide an assessment of sea level simulated in a suite of global ocean-sea ice models using the interannual CORE atmospheric state to determine surface ocean boundary buoyancy and momentum fluxes. These CORE-II simulations are compared amongst themselves as well as to observation-based estimates. We focus on the final 15. years of the simulations (1993-2007), as this is a period where the CORE-II atmospheric state is well sampled, and it allows us to compare sea level related fields to both satellite and in situ analyses. The ensemble mean of the CORE-II simulations broadly agree with various global and regional observation-based analyses during this period, though with the global mean thermosteric sea level rise biased low relative to observation-based analyses. The simulations reveal a positive trend in dynamic sea level in the west Pacific and negative trend in the east, with this trend arising from wind shifts and regional changes in upper 700. m ocean heat content. The models also exhibit a thermosteric sea level rise in the subpolar North Atlantic associated with a transition around 1995/1996 of the North Atlantic Oscillation to its negative phase, and the advection of warm subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. Sea level trends are predominantly associated with steric trends, with thermosteric effects generally far larger than halosteric effects, except in the Arctic and North Atlantic. There is a general anti-correlation between thermosteric and halosteric effects for much of the World Ocean, associated with density compensated changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-89
Number of pages55
JournalOcean Modelling
Volume78
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Sea level
sea level
simulation
ocean
North Atlantic Oscillation
global ocean
gyre
Sea ice
buoyancy
Advection
sea ice
sea surface
Buoyancy
momentum
advection
trend
Enthalpy
Momentum
Satellites
Fluxes

Keywords

  • CORE global ocean-ice simulations
  • Global sea level
  • Ocean heat content
  • Sea level
  • Steric sea level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Oceanography
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)

Cite this

An assessment of global and regional sea level for years 1993-2007 in a suite of interannual core-II simulations. / Griffies, Stephen M.; Yin, Jianjun; Durack, Paul J.; Goddard, Paul; Bates, Susan C.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus W.; Bozec, Alexandra; Chassignet, Eric; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Domingues, Catia M.; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Holland, David M.; Ilicak, Mehmet; Large, William G.; Lorbacher, Katja; Lu, Jianhua; Marsland, Simon J.; Mishra, Akhilesh; George Nurser, A. J.; Salas y Mélia, David; Palter, Jaime B.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Schröter, Jens; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Treguier, Anne Marie; Tseng, Yu heng; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Winton, Michael; Zhang, Xuebin.

In: Ocean Modelling, Vol. 78, 2014, p. 35-89.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Griffies, SM, Yin, J, Durack, PJ, Goddard, P, Bates, SC, Behrens, E, Bentsen, M, Bi, D, Biastoch, A, Böning, CW, Bozec, A, Chassignet, E, Danabasoglu, G, Danilov, S, Domingues, CM, Drange, H, Farneti, R, Fernandez, E, Greatbatch, RJ, Holland, DM, Ilicak, M, Large, WG, Lorbacher, K, Lu, J, Marsland, SJ, Mishra, A, George Nurser, AJ, Salas y Mélia, D, Palter, JB, Samuels, BL, Schröter, J, Schwarzkopf, FU, Sidorenko, D, Treguier, AM, Tseng, YH, Tsujino, H, Uotila, P, Valcke, S, Voldoire, A, Wang, Q, Winton, M & Zhang, X 2014, 'An assessment of global and regional sea level for years 1993-2007 in a suite of interannual core-II simulations', Ocean Modelling, vol. 78, pp. 35-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.03.004
Griffies, Stephen M. ; Yin, Jianjun ; Durack, Paul J. ; Goddard, Paul ; Bates, Susan C. ; Behrens, Erik ; Bentsen, Mats ; Bi, Daohua ; Biastoch, Arne ; Böning, Claus W. ; Bozec, Alexandra ; Chassignet, Eric ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan ; Danilov, Sergey ; Domingues, Catia M. ; Drange, Helge ; Farneti, Riccardo ; Fernandez, Elodie ; Greatbatch, Richard J. ; Holland, David M. ; Ilicak, Mehmet ; Large, William G. ; Lorbacher, Katja ; Lu, Jianhua ; Marsland, Simon J. ; Mishra, Akhilesh ; George Nurser, A. J. ; Salas y Mélia, David ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Samuels, Bonita L. ; Schröter, Jens ; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U. ; Sidorenko, Dmitry ; Treguier, Anne Marie ; Tseng, Yu heng ; Tsujino, Hiroyuki ; Uotila, Petteri ; Valcke, Sophie ; Voldoire, Aurore ; Wang, Qiang ; Winton, Michael ; Zhang, Xuebin. / An assessment of global and regional sea level for years 1993-2007 in a suite of interannual core-II simulations. In: Ocean Modelling. 2014 ; Vol. 78. pp. 35-89.
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abstract = "We provide an assessment of sea level simulated in a suite of global ocean-sea ice models using the interannual CORE atmospheric state to determine surface ocean boundary buoyancy and momentum fluxes. These CORE-II simulations are compared amongst themselves as well as to observation-based estimates. We focus on the final 15. years of the simulations (1993-2007), as this is a period where the CORE-II atmospheric state is well sampled, and it allows us to compare sea level related fields to both satellite and in situ analyses. The ensemble mean of the CORE-II simulations broadly agree with various global and regional observation-based analyses during this period, though with the global mean thermosteric sea level rise biased low relative to observation-based analyses. The simulations reveal a positive trend in dynamic sea level in the west Pacific and negative trend in the east, with this trend arising from wind shifts and regional changes in upper 700. m ocean heat content. The models also exhibit a thermosteric sea level rise in the subpolar North Atlantic associated with a transition around 1995/1996 of the North Atlantic Oscillation to its negative phase, and the advection of warm subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. Sea level trends are predominantly associated with steric trends, with thermosteric effects generally far larger than halosteric effects, except in the Arctic and North Atlantic. There is a general anti-correlation between thermosteric and halosteric effects for much of the World Ocean, associated with density compensated changes.",
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T1 - An assessment of global and regional sea level for years 1993-2007 in a suite of interannual core-II simulations

AU - Griffies, Stephen M.

AU - Yin, Jianjun

AU - Durack, Paul J.

AU - Goddard, Paul

AU - Bates, Susan C.

AU - Behrens, Erik

AU - Bentsen, Mats

AU - Bi, Daohua

AU - Biastoch, Arne

AU - Böning, Claus W.

AU - Bozec, Alexandra

AU - Chassignet, Eric

AU - Danabasoglu, Gokhan

AU - Danilov, Sergey

AU - Domingues, Catia M.

AU - Drange, Helge

AU - Farneti, Riccardo

AU - Fernandez, Elodie

AU - Greatbatch, Richard J.

AU - Holland, David M.

AU - Ilicak, Mehmet

AU - Large, William G.

AU - Lorbacher, Katja

AU - Lu, Jianhua

AU - Marsland, Simon J.

AU - Mishra, Akhilesh

AU - George Nurser, A. J.

AU - Salas y Mélia, David

AU - Palter, Jaime B.

AU - Samuels, Bonita L.

AU - Schröter, Jens

AU - Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.

AU - Sidorenko, Dmitry

AU - Treguier, Anne Marie

AU - Tseng, Yu heng

AU - Tsujino, Hiroyuki

AU - Uotila, Petteri

AU - Valcke, Sophie

AU - Voldoire, Aurore

AU - Wang, Qiang

AU - Winton, Michael

AU - Zhang, Xuebin

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - We provide an assessment of sea level simulated in a suite of global ocean-sea ice models using the interannual CORE atmospheric state to determine surface ocean boundary buoyancy and momentum fluxes. These CORE-II simulations are compared amongst themselves as well as to observation-based estimates. We focus on the final 15. years of the simulations (1993-2007), as this is a period where the CORE-II atmospheric state is well sampled, and it allows us to compare sea level related fields to both satellite and in situ analyses. The ensemble mean of the CORE-II simulations broadly agree with various global and regional observation-based analyses during this period, though with the global mean thermosteric sea level rise biased low relative to observation-based analyses. The simulations reveal a positive trend in dynamic sea level in the west Pacific and negative trend in the east, with this trend arising from wind shifts and regional changes in upper 700. m ocean heat content. The models also exhibit a thermosteric sea level rise in the subpolar North Atlantic associated with a transition around 1995/1996 of the North Atlantic Oscillation to its negative phase, and the advection of warm subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. Sea level trends are predominantly associated with steric trends, with thermosteric effects generally far larger than halosteric effects, except in the Arctic and North Atlantic. There is a general anti-correlation between thermosteric and halosteric effects for much of the World Ocean, associated with density compensated changes.

AB - We provide an assessment of sea level simulated in a suite of global ocean-sea ice models using the interannual CORE atmospheric state to determine surface ocean boundary buoyancy and momentum fluxes. These CORE-II simulations are compared amongst themselves as well as to observation-based estimates. We focus on the final 15. years of the simulations (1993-2007), as this is a period where the CORE-II atmospheric state is well sampled, and it allows us to compare sea level related fields to both satellite and in situ analyses. The ensemble mean of the CORE-II simulations broadly agree with various global and regional observation-based analyses during this period, though with the global mean thermosteric sea level rise biased low relative to observation-based analyses. The simulations reveal a positive trend in dynamic sea level in the west Pacific and negative trend in the east, with this trend arising from wind shifts and regional changes in upper 700. m ocean heat content. The models also exhibit a thermosteric sea level rise in the subpolar North Atlantic associated with a transition around 1995/1996 of the North Atlantic Oscillation to its negative phase, and the advection of warm subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. Sea level trends are predominantly associated with steric trends, with thermosteric effects generally far larger than halosteric effects, except in the Arctic and North Atlantic. There is a general anti-correlation between thermosteric and halosteric effects for much of the World Ocean, associated with density compensated changes.

KW - CORE global ocean-ice simulations

KW - Global sea level

KW - Ocean heat content

KW - Sea level

KW - Steric sea level

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