Potential biological effects of atmospheric deposition on trees and forests, their likely impacts on forest outputs, and suggested techniques for valuing the forest output impacts are examined. The potential biological effects of pollutants, to the extent they injure trees, are mortality, growth loss, predisposition to secondary pathogens and stresses, visible damage, and loss of reproductive vigor. Output impacts include changing the quantity, quality, and timing of timber yields from existing and subsequent stands. Recreation and scenic beauty impacts are most likely to be reflected by users who discontinue the activity, users who substitute another site or activity, or users who continue the activity as before but have decreased enjoyment. Water impacts seem least likely to occur but would be measured by changes in yield, quality, and timing if they did. Wildlife impacts will be reflected in changes in species and population numbers. Techniques for placing economic values on impacts are suggested where possible.
- benefit-cost analysis
- impact analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law