An efficient algorithm for ℓ0minimization in wavelet frame based image restoration

Bin Dong, Yong Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Scopus citations


Wavelet frame based models for image restoration have been extensively studied for the past decade (Chan et al. in SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 24(4):1408-1432, 2003; Cai et al. in Multiscale Model. Simul. 8(2):337-369, 2009; Elad et al. in Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 19(3):340-358, 2005; Starck et al. in IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14(10):1570-1582, 2005; Shen in Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians, vol. 4, pp. 2834-2863, 2010; Dong and Shen in IAS lecture notes series, Summer program on "The mathematics of image processing", Park City Mathematics Institute, 2010). The success of wavelet frames in image restoration is mainly due to their capability of sparsely approximating piecewise smooth functions like images. Most of the wavelet frame based models designed in the past are based on the penalization of the l1 norm of wavelet frame coefficients, which, under certain conditions, is the right choice, as supported by theories of compressed sensing (Candes et al. in Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal., 2010; Candes et al. in IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(2):489-509, 2006; Donoho in IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52:1289-1306, 2006). However, the assumptions of compressed sensing may not be satisfied in practice (e.g. for image deblurring and CT image reconstruction). Recently in Zhang et al. (UCLA CAM Report, vol. 11-32, 2011), the authors propose to penalize the ℓ0"norm" of the wavelet frame coefficients instead, and they have demonstrated significant improvements of their method over some commonly used ℓ1minimization models in terms of quality of the recovered images. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, called the mean doubly augmented Lagrangian (MDAL) method, for ℓ0minimizations based on the classical doubly augmented Lagrangian (DAL) method (Rockafellar in Math. Oper. Res. 97-116, 1976). Our numerical experiments show that the proposed MDAL method is not only more efficient than the method proposed by Zhang et al. (UCLA CAM Report, vol. 11-32, 2011), but can also generate recovered images with even higher quality. This study reassures the feasibility of using the ℓ0"norm" for image restoration problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-368
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Scientific Computing
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013


  • Augmented Lagrangian
  • Image restoration
  • Wavelet frames
  • ℓminimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Engineering(all)
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics

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