An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO

Julien Rameau, Katherine B. Follette, Laurent Pueyo, Christian Marois, Bruce MacIntosh, Maxwell Millar-Blanchaer, Jason J. Wang, David Vega, René Doyon, David Lafrenire, Eric L. Nielsen, Vanessa Bailey, Jeffrey K. Chilcote, Laird M. Close, Thomas M. Esposito, Jared R. Males, Stanimir Metchev, Katie M. Morzinski, Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Schuyler G. Wolff & 35 others S. M. Ammons, Travis S. Barman, Joanna Bulger, Tara Cotten, Robert J.De Rosa, Gaspard Duchene, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Stephen Goodsell, James R. Graham, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Li Wei Hung, Patrick Ingraham, Paul Kalas, Quinn Konopacky, James E. Larkin, Jérôme Maire, Franck Marchis, Rebecca Oppenheimer, David Palmer, Jennifer Patience, Marshall D. Perrin, Lisa Poyneer, Abhijith Rajan, Fredrik T. Rantakyrö, Mark S. Marley, Dmitry Savransky, Adam C. Schneider, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Inseok Song, Remi Soummer, Sandrine Thomas, J. Kent Wallace, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Sloane Wiktorowicz

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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Abstract

We present H band spectroscopic and Hμ photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hμ imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 ? 10-4 L o and for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Article number244
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume153
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

Fingerprint

near infrared
planet
accretion
planets
luminosity
protoplanets
extinction
timescale
temperature
parameter
rate
protoplanetary disks
T Tauri stars
photosphere
point spread functions
extremely high frequencies
subtraction
cameras
orbits
stars

Keywords

  • instrumentation: adaptive optics
  • planet-disk interactions
  • planetary systems
  • stars: individual (HD 100546)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Rameau, J., Follette, K. B., Pueyo, L., Marois, C., MacIntosh, B., Millar-Blanchaer, M., ... Wiktorowicz, S. (2017). An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. Astronomical Journal, 153(6), [244]. DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae

An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. / Rameau, Julien; Follette, Katherine B.; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; MacIntosh, Bruce; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Wang, Jason J.; Vega, David; Doyon, René; Lafrenire, David; Nielsen, Eric L.; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Close, Laird M.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Males, Jared R.; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. M.; Barman, Travis S.; Bulger, Joanna; Cotten, Tara; Rosa, Robert J.De; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Marley, Mark S.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 153, No. 6, 244, 01.06.2017.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Rameau, J, Follette, KB, Pueyo, L, Marois, C, MacIntosh, B, Millar-Blanchaer, M, Wang, JJ, Vega, D, Doyon, R, Lafrenire, D, Nielsen, EL, Bailey, V, Chilcote, JK, Close, LM, Esposito, TM, Males, JR, Metchev, S, Morzinski, KM, Ruffio, JB, Wolff, SG, Ammons, SM, Barman, TS, Bulger, J, Cotten, T, Rosa, RJD, Duchene, G, Fitzgerald, MP, Goodsell, S, Graham, JR, Greenbaum, AZ, Hibon, P, Hung, LW, Ingraham, P, Kalas, P, Konopacky, Q, Larkin, JE, Maire, J, Marchis, F, Oppenheimer, R, Palmer, D, Patience, J, Perrin, MD, Poyneer, L, Rajan, A, Rantakyrö, FT, Marley, MS, Savransky, D, Schneider, AC, Sivaramakrishnan, A, Song, I, Soummer, R, Thomas, S, Wallace, JK, Ward-Duong, K & Wiktorowicz, S 2017, 'An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO' Astronomical Journal, vol 153, no. 6, 244. DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae
Rameau J, Follette KB, Pueyo L, Marois C, MacIntosh B, Millar-Blanchaer M et al. An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. Astronomical Journal. 2017 Jun 1;153(6). 244. Available from, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae
Rameau, Julien ; Follette, Katherine B. ; Pueyo, Laurent ; Marois, Christian ; MacIntosh, Bruce ; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell ; Wang, Jason J. ; Vega, David ; Doyon, René ; Lafrenire, David ; Nielsen, Eric L. ; Bailey, Vanessa ; Chilcote, Jeffrey K. ; Close, Laird M. ; Esposito, Thomas M. ; Males, Jared R. ; Metchev, Stanimir ; Morzinski, Katie M. ; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste ; Wolff, Schuyler G. ; Ammons, S. M. ; Barman, Travis S. ; Bulger, Joanna ; Cotten, Tara ; Rosa, Robert J.De ; Duchene, Gaspard ; Fitzgerald, Michael P. ; Goodsell, Stephen ; Graham, James R. ; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. ; Hibon, Pascale ; Hung, Li Wei ; Ingraham, Patrick ; Kalas, Paul ; Konopacky, Quinn ; Larkin, James E. ; Maire, Jérôme ; Marchis, Franck ; Oppenheimer, Rebecca ; Palmer, David ; Patience, Jennifer ; Perrin, Marshall D. ; Poyneer, Lisa ; Rajan, Abhijith ; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. ; Marley, Mark S. ; Savransky, Dmitry ; Schneider, Adam C. ; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand ; Song, Inseok ; Soummer, Remi ; Thomas, Sandrine ; Wallace, J. Kent ; Ward-Duong, Kimberly ; Wiktorowicz, Sloane. / An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. In: Astronomical Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 153, No. 6.
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abstract = "We present H band spectroscopic and Hμ photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hμ imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 ? 10-4 L o and for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.",
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AU - Rameau,Julien

AU - Follette,Katherine B.

AU - Pueyo,Laurent

AU - Marois,Christian

AU - MacIntosh,Bruce

AU - Millar-Blanchaer,Maxwell

AU - Wang,Jason J.

AU - Vega,David

AU - Doyon,René

AU - Lafrenire,David

AU - Nielsen,Eric L.

AU - Bailey,Vanessa

AU - Chilcote,Jeffrey K.

AU - Close,Laird M.

AU - Esposito,Thomas M.

AU - Males,Jared R.

AU - Metchev,Stanimir

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AU - Ruffio,Jean Baptiste

AU - Wolff,Schuyler G.

AU - Ammons,S. M.

AU - Barman,Travis S.

AU - Bulger,Joanna

AU - Cotten,Tara

AU - Rosa,Robert J.De

AU - Duchene,Gaspard

AU - Fitzgerald,Michael P.

AU - Goodsell,Stephen

AU - Graham,James R.

AU - Greenbaum,Alexandra Z.

AU - Hibon,Pascale

AU - Hung,Li Wei

AU - Ingraham,Patrick

AU - Kalas,Paul

AU - Konopacky,Quinn

AU - Larkin,James E.

AU - Maire,Jérôme

AU - Marchis,Franck

AU - Oppenheimer,Rebecca

AU - Palmer,David

AU - Patience,Jennifer

AU - Perrin,Marshall D.

AU - Poyneer,Lisa

AU - Rajan,Abhijith

AU - Rantakyrö,Fredrik T.

AU - Marley,Mark S.

AU - Savransky,Dmitry

AU - Schneider,Adam C.

AU - Sivaramakrishnan,Anand

AU - Song,Inseok

AU - Soummer,Remi

AU - Thomas,Sandrine

AU - Wallace,J. Kent

AU - Ward-Duong,Kimberly

AU - Wiktorowicz,Sloane

PY - 2017/6/1

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N2 - We present H band spectroscopic and Hμ photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hμ imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 ? 10-4 L o and for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.

AB - We present H band spectroscopic and Hμ photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hμ imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 ? 10-4 L o and for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.

KW - instrumentation: adaptive optics

KW - planet-disk interactions

KW - planetary systems

KW - stars: individual (HD 100546)

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