An Ordered Envelope-Disk Transition in the Massive Protostellar Source G339.88-1.26

Yichen Zhang, Jonathan C. Tan, Nami Sakai, Kei E.I. Tanaka, James M. De Buizer, Mengyao Liu, Maria T. Beltrán, Kaitlin Kratter, Diego Mardones, Guido Garay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We report molecular line observations of the massive protostellar source G339.88-1.26 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The observations reveal a highly collimated SiO jet extending from the 1.3 mm continuum source, which connects to a slightly wider but still highly collimated CO outflow. Rotational features perpendicular to the outflow axis are detected in various molecular emissions, including SiO, SO 2 , H 2 S, CH 3 OH, and H 2 CO emissions. Based on their spatial distributions and kinematics, we find that they trace different parts of the envelope-disk system. The SiO emission traces the disk and inner envelope in addition to the jet. The CH 3 OH and H 2 CO emissions mostly trace the infalling-rotating envelope and are enhanced around the transition region between envelope and disk, i.e., the centrifugal barrier. The SO 2 and H 2 S emissions are enhanced around the centrifugal barrier and also trace the outer part of the disk. Envelope kinematics are consistent with rotating-infalling motion, while those of the disk are consistent with Keplerian rotation. The radius and velocity of the centrifugal barrier are estimated to be about 530 au and 6 , respectively, leading to a central mass of about 11 M o , consistent with estimates based on spectral energy distribution fitting. These results indicate that an ordered transition from an infalling-rotating envelope to a Keplerian disk through a centrifugal barrier, accompanied by changes of types of molecular line emissions, is a valid description of this massive protostellar source. This implies that at least some massive stars form in a similar way to low-mass stars via core accretion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number73
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume873
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

envelopes
outflow
kinematics
methylidyne
spectral energy distribution
massive stars
spatial distribution
accretion
continuums
stars
radii
estimates
energy

Keywords

  • ISM: individual objects (G339.88-1.26)
  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • ISM: kinematics and dynamics
  • ISM: molecules
  • stars: formation
  • stars: massive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Zhang, Y., Tan, J. C., Sakai, N., Tanaka, K. E. I., De Buizer, J. M., Liu, M., ... Garay, G. (2019). An Ordered Envelope-Disk Transition in the Massive Protostellar Source G339.88-1.26. Astrophysical Journal, 873(1), [73]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0553

An Ordered Envelope-Disk Transition in the Massive Protostellar Source G339.88-1.26. / Zhang, Yichen; Tan, Jonathan C.; Sakai, Nami; Tanaka, Kei E.I.; De Buizer, James M.; Liu, Mengyao; Beltrán, Maria T.; Kratter, Kaitlin; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 873, No. 1, 73, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Y, Tan, JC, Sakai, N, Tanaka, KEI, De Buizer, JM, Liu, M, Beltrán, MT, Kratter, K, Mardones, D & Garay, G 2019, 'An Ordered Envelope-Disk Transition in the Massive Protostellar Source G339.88-1.26', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 873, no. 1, 73. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0553
Zhang, Yichen ; Tan, Jonathan C. ; Sakai, Nami ; Tanaka, Kei E.I. ; De Buizer, James M. ; Liu, Mengyao ; Beltrán, Maria T. ; Kratter, Kaitlin ; Mardones, Diego ; Garay, Guido. / An Ordered Envelope-Disk Transition in the Massive Protostellar Source G339.88-1.26. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 873, No. 1.
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AU - De Buizer, James M.

AU - Liu, Mengyao

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AB - We report molecular line observations of the massive protostellar source G339.88-1.26 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The observations reveal a highly collimated SiO jet extending from the 1.3 mm continuum source, which connects to a slightly wider but still highly collimated CO outflow. Rotational features perpendicular to the outflow axis are detected in various molecular emissions, including SiO, SO 2 , H 2 S, CH 3 OH, and H 2 CO emissions. Based on their spatial distributions and kinematics, we find that they trace different parts of the envelope-disk system. The SiO emission traces the disk and inner envelope in addition to the jet. The CH 3 OH and H 2 CO emissions mostly trace the infalling-rotating envelope and are enhanced around the transition region between envelope and disk, i.e., the centrifugal barrier. The SO 2 and H 2 S emissions are enhanced around the centrifugal barrier and also trace the outer part of the disk. Envelope kinematics are consistent with rotating-infalling motion, while those of the disk are consistent with Keplerian rotation. The radius and velocity of the centrifugal barrier are estimated to be about 530 au and 6 , respectively, leading to a central mass of about 11 M o , consistent with estimates based on spectral energy distribution fitting. These results indicate that an ordered transition from an infalling-rotating envelope to a Keplerian disk through a centrifugal barrier, accompanied by changes of types of molecular line emissions, is a valid description of this massive protostellar source. This implies that at least some massive stars form in a similar way to low-mass stars via core accretion.

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