Analysis of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression during malignant melanoma progression

Anne Christine Goulet, Janine G. Einsphar, David S Alberts, Anthony Beas, Cynthia Burk, Achyut K Bhattacharyya, Jerry Bangert, Janet M. Harmon, Hideji Fujiwara, Alane Koki, Mark A Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes during inflammation. There are now several lines of evidence indicating that increased expression of COX-2 plays a functional role in the development and progression of malignant epithelial cancers. However, there is only limited data regarding the role of COX-2 in melanoma pathogenesis. In the present work, we retrospectively examined lesions through out the development of melanoma and metastatic disease (dysplastic nevi n = 10, melanoma in situ n = 4, stage II melanoma n = 10, stage III n = 4, stage IV n = 3, stage V n = 2, melanoma metastasis lymph nodes n = 13 metastasis to other sites n = 3). COX-2 was consistently observed in keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells in regions adjacent to benign evi and primary cutaneous melanomas. However, no COX-2 staining was detected in the nevi nor in the primary skin melanoma cells. In addition, COX-2 was undetected in all vertical and radial growth phase cases Interestingly, 13 out of 13 of the lymph node metastasis expressed extremely high levels of COX-2 in overlying epithelium and inflammatory cells, and COX-2 was strongly detected in the metastatic cancer cells per se. For additional information on the expression of COX-2 in malignant melanoma, we determined the expression of COX-2 protein in several different melanoma cell lines. We found that 3We found that 5 out of 7 of the melanoma cells over expressed COX-2 compared to normal melanocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that COX-2 may play a functional role in metastases of melanoma, and treatment with COX-2 inhibitors may be efficacious for malignant melanoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-718
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Biology and Therapy
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2003

Fingerprint

Cyclooxygenase 2
Melanoma
Neoplasm Metastasis
Skin
Lymph Nodes
Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
Nevus
Melanocytes
Thromboxanes
Keratinocytes
Prostaglandins
Neoplasms
Epithelium
Fibroblasts
Staining and Labeling
Inflammation
Cell Line

Keywords

  • Arachidonic acid
  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Eicosanoids
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Melanoma
  • Prostaglandins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Analysis of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression during malignant melanoma progression. / Goulet, Anne Christine; Einsphar, Janine G.; Alberts, David S; Beas, Anthony; Burk, Cynthia; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Bangert, Jerry; Harmon, Janet M.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Koki, Alane; Nelson, Mark A.

In: Cancer Biology and Therapy, Vol. 2, No. 6, 11.2003, p. 713-718.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Goulet, AC, Einsphar, JG, Alberts, DS, Beas, A, Burk, C, Bhattacharyya, AK, Bangert, J, Harmon, JM, Fujiwara, H, Koki, A & Nelson, MA 2003, 'Analysis of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression during malignant melanoma progression', Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 713-718. https://doi.org/10.4161/cbt.2.6.627
Goulet, Anne Christine ; Einsphar, Janine G. ; Alberts, David S ; Beas, Anthony ; Burk, Cynthia ; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K ; Bangert, Jerry ; Harmon, Janet M. ; Fujiwara, Hideji ; Koki, Alane ; Nelson, Mark A. / Analysis of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression during malignant melanoma progression. In: Cancer Biology and Therapy. 2003 ; Vol. 2, No. 6. pp. 713-718.
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AB - Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes during inflammation. There are now several lines of evidence indicating that increased expression of COX-2 plays a functional role in the development and progression of malignant epithelial cancers. However, there is only limited data regarding the role of COX-2 in melanoma pathogenesis. In the present work, we retrospectively examined lesions through out the development of melanoma and metastatic disease (dysplastic nevi n = 10, melanoma in situ n = 4, stage II melanoma n = 10, stage III n = 4, stage IV n = 3, stage V n = 2, melanoma metastasis lymph nodes n = 13 metastasis to other sites n = 3). COX-2 was consistently observed in keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells in regions adjacent to benign evi and primary cutaneous melanomas. However, no COX-2 staining was detected in the nevi nor in the primary skin melanoma cells. In addition, COX-2 was undetected in all vertical and radial growth phase cases Interestingly, 13 out of 13 of the lymph node metastasis expressed extremely high levels of COX-2 in overlying epithelium and inflammatory cells, and COX-2 was strongly detected in the metastatic cancer cells per se. For additional information on the expression of COX-2 in malignant melanoma, we determined the expression of COX-2 protein in several different melanoma cell lines. We found that 3We found that 5 out of 7 of the melanoma cells over expressed COX-2 compared to normal melanocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that COX-2 may play a functional role in metastases of melanoma, and treatment with COX-2 inhibitors may be efficacious for malignant melanoma.

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