The optical design process of conventional stereoscope-type head mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality applications typically neglects the inherent aberrations of the eye optics or refractive errors of a viewer, which misses the opportunity of producing personal devices for optimal visual experiences. Although a few research efforts have been made to simulate the retinal image formation process for some of the emerging 3D display systems such as light field displays that require modeling the eye optics to complete the image formation process, the existing works generally are specific for one type of display methods, unable to provide a generalized framework for different display methods for the benefit of comparison, and often require the use of at least two different software platforms for implementation which is challenging in handling massive data and implementing compensation of wavefront aberrations induced by display engine or eye refractive errors. To overcome those limits, we present a generalized analytical model for accurately simulating the visual responses such as retinal PSF, MTF, and image formation of different types of 2D and 3D display systems. This analytical model can accurately simulate the retinal responses when viewing a given display system, accounting for the residual eye aberrations of schematic eye models that match with the statistical clinical measurements, eye accommodative change as required, the effects of different eye refractive errors specific to viewers, and the effects of various wavefront aberrations inherited from a display engine. We further describe the numerical implementation of this analytical model for simulating the perceived retinal image with different types of HMD systems in a single computational platform. Finally, with a test setup, we numerically demonstrated the application of this analytical model in the simulation of the perceived retinal image, accommodative response and in the investigation of the eye refractive error impacts on the perceived retinal image based on the multifocal plane display, integral imaging based light field display, computational multilayer light field display, as well as the stereoscope and natural viewing for comparison.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics