Assessing dietary D-limonene intake for epidemiological studies

Iman A Hakim, T. McClure, D. Liebler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical models of breast and colon cancers. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine D-limonene levels in a variety of commonly consumed citrus juices and (2) to develop a citrus questionnaire (CQ) and a D-limonene database which can be used in epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between dietary D-limonene and cancer risk. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted to develop the questionnaire and to assess the consumption and preparation techniques of citrus foods. Seventy samples of various citrus juice products were analysed by gas chromatography. Preliminary results suggest that sources and preparation or storage practices have major influences on D-limonene levels. Many commonly consumed citrus beverages contain no D-limonene. The largest sources of D-limonene (mg/L), identified to date, are fresh Mediterranean-style lemonade (1027) and limeade (402), followed by commercial orange juices in cans (51.9-85), in glasses (35.4-60.3), from concentrates (27.5-90) and grapefruit juices in cans (13.5-50). The availability of quantitative estimates of D-limonene will substantially enhance the scope of epidemiological studies by (1) allowing for the examination of the effects of dietary D-limonene and (2) minimizing the potential for uncontrolled confounding by unmeasured sources of D-limonene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-336
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Volume13
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

epidemiological studies
Epidemiologic Studies
Citrus
citrus juices
cans
questionnaires
limonene
grapefruit juice
Citrus paradisi
focus groups
orange juice
Beverages
Focus Groups
colorectal neoplasms
Gas Chromatography
breast neoplasms
Colonic Neoplasms
beverages
Glass
glass

Keywords

  • Chemoprevention
  • Citrus
  • D-limonene
  • Questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Assessing dietary D-limonene intake for epidemiological studies. / Hakim, Iman A; McClure, T.; Liebler, D.

In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2000, p. 329-336.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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