Assessment of Kidney Function in Patients With Extreme Obesity: A Narrative Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To discuss the evidence and caveats associated with estimated and measured creatinine clearance (eClCr and mClCr) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and mGFR) assessments of kidney function in patients with more extreme forms of obesity. Data Sources: PubMed (1976 to mid-May 2020) was used, with bibliographies of retrieved articles searched for additional articles. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Articles using gold standard mGFR to evaluate eClCr, mClCr, and eGFR assessments of kidney function in patients with more extreme forms of obesity were included. Data Synthesis: The overestimation of GFR by mClCr is well established, but mClCr is an alternative to mGFR assessments for determining medication dosing in patients with extremes of body size or muscle mass, or in patients receiving narrow therapeutic index medications when eGFR is likely to be inaccurate. The vast majority of studies comparing eGFR assessments with gold standard indicators of kidney function were attempts to validate eGFR equations for diagnosing and staging chronic kidney disease (CKD). Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: For dosing medications in patients with stable kidney function and extreme obesity, a deindexed 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation is an alternative to Cockcroft-Gault. Consistent use of the same equation by provider and between providers within any given setting is of paramount importance. Conclusions: In patients with extreme obesity and stable kidney function, eClCr or eGFR using deindexed values provides estimates of function for dosing adjustments of medications with elimination by the kidneys, but more research is needed with respect to the best size descriptor to use with estimating equations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-88
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Volume55
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • creatinine
  • drug therapy
  • glomerular filtration rate
  • kidney disease
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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