Long term data records require the effective integration of new sensor technologies and improved algorithms to better characterize global and climate change impacts on ecosystems, while preserving the fundamental attributes of the existing data record. In this study, we investigated key determinants in the spectral translation and extension of MODIS Vegetation Index products across current sensor systems and to the NPOESS (VIIRS) era. We used simulated sensorspecific data sets derived from hyperspectral data using field spectroroadiometers and Hyperion sensors to investigate inter-sensor translation and continuity issues of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). We also investigated the use of data fusion of satellite VI time series with in-situ flux tower time series measurements of photosynthesis, and the use of data fusion with tower-based continuous measures of broadband/hemispherical VI's as possible reference data sets for the inter-calibration of satellite VI time series from different sensor systems. Preliminary comparisons are presented with actual satellite VI measurements from SPOT-VEGETATION, Terra- and Aqua-MODIS, and AVHRR sensors. We found that with a consistent atmosphere correction scheme and a generalized compositing procedure, translation of multi-sensor datasets can be achieved with certain limitations.