Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of titanium thin film electrodes

Neal R Armstrong, Rod K. Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

145 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Auger (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterizations of electrochemically oxidized titanium are described. Surface oxides on thin (200-250 Å) vacuum deposited titanium films were formed under conditions of linear potential scan in 1 N KClO4, 1 N HClO4 and 1 N H2SO4. Current/voltage, capacitance/voltage and surface conductance/voltage relationships confirmed the irreversible formation of the surface oxide at thickness of 20-30 Å/V, for low applied potentials. Post moretem analysis of the thin films by AES and XPS indicated a mixture of metal and metal oxides (TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO) on each surface, with the higher oxide states predominating on the electrochemically oxidized films. Observation of the LIIIM2,3M4,5, N(E) signal shape in the Auger spectra of the potentially oxidized oxidized films showed a suboxide TiO-like surface rather than an TiO2 surface state. Deconvolution of the Ti(2p 1 2, 3 2) XPS spectra confirmed the coexistence of multiple oxidation states of Ti during electrochemical or atmospheric oxidation of the films. Ion sputtering of each surface was used to characterize the subsurface metal/metal oxide composition and to correlate the oxygen to metal atomic ratio with electrochemical pretreatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)451-468
Number of pages18
JournalSurface Science
Volume67
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2 1977
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Photoelectrons
Titanium
photoelectrons
Oxides
titanium
X rays
Thin films
Metals
Electrodes
electrodes
thin films
x rays
Electric potential
metal oxides
oxides
electric potential
Oxidation
metals
Surface states
Deconvolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

Cite this

Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of titanium thin film electrodes. / Armstrong, Neal R; Quinn, Rod K.

In: Surface Science, Vol. 67, No. 2, 02.10.1977, p. 451-468.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Auger (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterizations of electrochemically oxidized titanium are described. Surface oxides on thin (200-250 {\AA}) vacuum deposited titanium films were formed under conditions of linear potential scan in 1 N KClO4, 1 N HClO4 and 1 N H2SO4. Current/voltage, capacitance/voltage and surface conductance/voltage relationships confirmed the irreversible formation of the surface oxide at thickness of 20-30 {\AA}/V, for low applied potentials. Post moretem analysis of the thin films by AES and XPS indicated a mixture of metal and metal oxides (TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO) on each surface, with the higher oxide states predominating on the electrochemically oxidized films. Observation of the LIIIM2,3M4,5, N(E) signal shape in the Auger spectra of the potentially oxidized oxidized films showed a suboxide TiO-like surface rather than an TiO2 surface state. Deconvolution of the Ti(2p 1 2, 3 2) XPS spectra confirmed the coexistence of multiple oxidation states of Ti during electrochemical or atmospheric oxidation of the films. Ion sputtering of each surface was used to characterize the subsurface metal/metal oxide composition and to correlate the oxygen to metal atomic ratio with electrochemical pretreatment.",
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AB - Auger (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) characterizations of electrochemically oxidized titanium are described. Surface oxides on thin (200-250 Å) vacuum deposited titanium films were formed under conditions of linear potential scan in 1 N KClO4, 1 N HClO4 and 1 N H2SO4. Current/voltage, capacitance/voltage and surface conductance/voltage relationships confirmed the irreversible formation of the surface oxide at thickness of 20-30 Å/V, for low applied potentials. Post moretem analysis of the thin films by AES and XPS indicated a mixture of metal and metal oxides (TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO) on each surface, with the higher oxide states predominating on the electrochemically oxidized films. Observation of the LIIIM2,3M4,5, N(E) signal shape in the Auger spectra of the potentially oxidized oxidized films showed a suboxide TiO-like surface rather than an TiO2 surface state. Deconvolution of the Ti(2p 1 2, 3 2) XPS spectra confirmed the coexistence of multiple oxidation states of Ti during electrochemical or atmospheric oxidation of the films. Ion sputtering of each surface was used to characterize the subsurface metal/metal oxide composition and to correlate the oxygen to metal atomic ratio with electrochemical pretreatment.

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