Recently, using 2D-DIGE proteomics we have identified cathepsin B as a novel target of UVA in human Hs27 skin fibroblasts. In response to chronic exposure to noncytotoxic doses of UVA (9.9 J cm-2, twice a week, 3 weeks), photooxidative impairment of cathepsin B enzymatic activity occurred with accumulation of autofluorescent aggregates colocalizing with lysosomes, an effect mimicked by pharmacological antagonism of cathepsin B using the selective inhibitor CA074Me. Here, we have further explored the mechanistic involvement of cathepsin B inactivation in UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations using autophagy-directed PCR expression array analysis as a discovery tool. Consistent with lysosomal expansion, UVA upregulated cellular protein levels of the lysosomal marker glycoprotein Lamp-1, and increased levels of the lipidated autophagosomal membrane constituent LC3-II were detected. UVA did not alter expression of beclin 1 (BECN1), an essential factor for initiation of autophagy, but upregulation of p62 (sequestosome 1, SQSTM1), a selective autophagy substrate, and α-synuclein (SNCA), an autophagic protein substrate and aggresome component, was observed at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, UVA downregulated transglutaminase-2 (TGM2), an essential enzyme involved in autophagolysosome maturation. Strikingly, UVA effects on Lamp-1, LC3-II, beclin 1, p62, α-synuclein, and transglutaminase-2 were mimicked by CA074Me treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that UVA-induced autophagic-lysosomal alterations occur as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux downstream of cathepsin B inactivation, a novel molecular mechanism potentially involved in UVA-induced skin photodamage.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry