An aging antigen, senescent cell antigen, resides on the 911 amino acid membrane protein band 3. It marks cells for removal by initiating specific IgG autoantibody binding. Band 3 is a ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in the plasma membrane of diverse cell types and tissues, and in nuclear, mitochondrial, and golgi membranes. Band 3 in tissues such as brain performs the same functions as it does in red blood cells forming senescent cell antigen. Oxidation is a mechanism for generating senescent cell antigen. The aging antigenic sites reside on human band 3 map residues 538-554, and 812-830. Carbohydrate moieties are not required for the antigenicity or recognition of senescent cell antigen. Anion transport site were mapped to residues 588-594, 822-839, and 869-883. The aging vulnerable site which triggers the antigenic site and the transport sites of band 3 were mapped using overlapping synthetic peptides along the molecule. Naturally occurring autoantibodies to regions of band 3 comprising both senescent cell antigen and B cells producing these antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of normal, healthy individuals. The presence of these antibodies tend to increase with age. Individuals with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) have increased antibodies to senescent cell antigen peptides. Radiation exposure results in an increase in antibodies to peptides 588-602 which lies in a transport region containing the aging vulnerable site. Band 3 ages as cells and tissues age. Our studies, to date, indicate, that the anion transport ability of band 3 decreases in brains and lymphocytes from old mice. This decreased transport ability precedes obvious structural changes such as band 3 degradation and generation of SCA, and is the earliest change thus far detected in band 3 function. Other changes include a decreased efficiency of anion transport (decreased V(max)) in spite of an increase in number of anion binding sites (increased K(m)), decreased glucose transport, increased phosphorylation, increased degradation to smaller fragments as detected by quantitative binding of antibodies to band 3 breakdown products and residue 812-830, and binding of physiologic IgG autoantibodies in situ. The latter 3 findings indicate that post- translational changes occur. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD), our results indicate that post-translational changes occur in band 3. These include decreased band 3 phosphorylation of a 25-28 kD segment, increased degradation of band 3, alterations in band 3 recognized by antibodies, and decreased anion and glucose transport by blood cells. Serum autoantibodies were increased in AD patients compared to controls to band 3 peptide 822-839. This band 3 residue lies in an anion transport/binding region.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)