Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest

Michael Kaspari, Jelena Bujan, Michael D. Weiser, Daliang Ning, Sean T. Michaletz, He Zhili, Brian Enquist, Robert B. Waide, Jizhong Zhou, Benjamin L. Turner, S. Joseph Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Humans are both fertilizing the world and depleting its soils, decreasing the diversity of aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial plants in the process. We know less about how nutrients shape the abundance and diversity of the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of Earth's soils. Here we explore this question in the soils of a Panama forest subject to a 13-yr fertilization with factorial combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a separate micronutrient cocktail. We contrast three hypotheses linking biogeochemistry to abundance and diversity. Consistent with the Stress Hypothesis, adding N suppressed the abundance of invertebrates and the richness of all three groups of organisms by ca. 1 SD or more below controls. Nitrogen addition plots were 0.8 pH units more acidic with 18% more exchangeable aluminum, which is toxic to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These stress effects were frequently reversed, however, when N was added with P (for prokaryotes and invertebrates) and with added K (for fungi). Consistent with the Abundance Hypothesis, adding P generally increased prokaryote and invertebrate diversity, and adding K enhanced invertebrate diversity. Also consistent with the Abundance Hypothesis, increases in invertebrate abundance generated increases in richness. We found little evidence for the Competition Hypothesis: that single nutrients suppressed diversity by favoring a subset of high nutrient specialists, and that nutrient combinations suppressed diversity even more. Instead, combinations of nutrients, and especially the cation/micronutrient treatment, yielded the largest increases in richness in the two eukaryote groups. In sum, changes in soil biogeochemistry revealed a diversity of responses among the three dominant soil groups, positive synergies among nutrients, and–in contrast with terrestrial plants–the frequent enhancement of soil biodiversity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2019-2028
Number of pages10
JournalEcology
Volume98
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

Fingerprint

biogeochemistry
prokaryote
prokaryotic cells
Panama
invertebrate
invertebrates
fungus
fungi
nutrient
nutrients
soil
eukaryote
dietary minerals
eukaryotic cells
trace element
exchangeable aluminum
nitrogen
aquatic ecosystem
cations
potassium

Keywords

  • biogeochemistry
  • brown food web
  • richness
  • soil
  • tropics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Kaspari, M., Bujan, J., Weiser, M. D., Ning, D., Michaletz, S. T., Zhili, H., ... Wright, S. J. (2017). Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest. Ecology, 98(8), 2019-2028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1895

Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest. / Kaspari, Michael; Bujan, Jelena; Weiser, Michael D.; Ning, Daliang; Michaletz, Sean T.; Zhili, He; Enquist, Brian; Waide, Robert B.; Zhou, Jizhong; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wright, S. Joseph.

In: Ecology, Vol. 98, No. 8, 01.08.2017, p. 2019-2028.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaspari, M, Bujan, J, Weiser, MD, Ning, D, Michaletz, ST, Zhili, H, Enquist, B, Waide, RB, Zhou, J, Turner, BL & Wright, SJ 2017, 'Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest', Ecology, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 2019-2028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1895
Kaspari M, Bujan J, Weiser MD, Ning D, Michaletz ST, Zhili H et al. Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest. Ecology. 2017 Aug 1;98(8):2019-2028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1895
Kaspari, Michael ; Bujan, Jelena ; Weiser, Michael D. ; Ning, Daliang ; Michaletz, Sean T. ; Zhili, He ; Enquist, Brian ; Waide, Robert B. ; Zhou, Jizhong ; Turner, Benjamin L. ; Wright, S. Joseph. / Biogeochemistry drives diversity in the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of a Panama forest. In: Ecology. 2017 ; Vol. 98, No. 8. pp. 2019-2028.
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