Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes.

Xue Ming Xu, Bradley A. Carlson, Heiko Mix, Yan Zhang, Kazima Saira, Richard S Glass, Marla J. Berry, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Selenocysteine (Sec) is cotranslationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons and is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. However, the means by which Sec is synthesized in eukaryotes is not known. Herein, comparative genomics and experimental analyses revealed that the mammalian Sec synthase (SecS) is the previously identified pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein known as the soluble liver antigen. SecS required selenophosphate and O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec) as substrates to generate selenocysteyl-tRNA([Ser]Sec). Moreover, it was found that Sec was synthesized on the tRNA scaffold from selenide, ATP, and serine using tRNA([Ser]Sec), seryl-tRNA synthetase, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec) kinase, selenophosphate synthetase, and SecS. By identifying the pathway of Sec biosynthesis in mammals, this study not only functionally characterized SecS but also assigned the function of the O-phosphoseryl-tRNA([Ser]Sec) kinase. In addition, we found that selenophosphate synthetase 2 could synthesize monoselenophosphate in vitro but selenophosphate synthetase 1 could not. Conservation of the overall pathway of Sec biosynthesis suggests that this pathway is also active in other eukaryotes and archaea that synthesize selenoproteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPLoS Biology
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2006

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Selenocysteine
selenocysteine
Biosynthesis
Transfer RNA
Eukaryota
eukaryotic cells
biosynthesis
Serine-tRNA Ligase
Phosphotransferases
Selenoproteins
ligases
Pyridoxal Phosphate
Mammals
Genetic Code
Scaffolds
Terminator Codon
Archaea
Serine
Genomics
Conservation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Xu, X. M., Carlson, B. A., Mix, H., Zhang, Y., Saira, K., Glass, R. S., ... Hatfield, D. L. (2006). Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. PLoS Biology, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050004

Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. / Xu, Xue Ming; Carlson, Bradley A.; Mix, Heiko; Zhang, Yan; Saira, Kazima; Glass, Richard S; Berry, Marla J.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

In: PLoS Biology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 12.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Xu, XM, Carlson, BA, Mix, H, Zhang, Y, Saira, K, Glass, RS, Berry, MJ, Gladyshev, VN & Hatfield, DL 2006, 'Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes.', PLoS Biology, vol. 5, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050004
Xu, Xue Ming ; Carlson, Bradley A. ; Mix, Heiko ; Zhang, Yan ; Saira, Kazima ; Glass, Richard S ; Berry, Marla J. ; Gladyshev, Vadim N. ; Hatfield, Dolph L. / Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. In: PLoS Biology. 2006 ; Vol. 5, No. 1.
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