Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pro-thrombotic state with enhanced thrombin generation and platelet reactivity. For most patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), bivalirudin demonstrates efficacy comparable with that of heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs). Yet, because of their pro-thrombotic condition, we hypothesized that patients with DM may benefit from more aggressive dual antithrombin and antiplatelet therapy. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review comparing outcomes of PCI with bivalirudin versus heparin plus GPI in patients with DM using meta-analytical techniques. Eligible studies needed to have reported a subgroup analysis of outcomes among diabetic patients. Six trials comprising 5924 diabetic patients were eligible. At 30 days, bivalirudin was associated with a reduction in net adverse cardiac events [relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.93, p = 0.002] and major bleeds (RR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49–0.95; p = 0.02), with no difference in composite ischemia (RR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.74–1.14; p = 0.43) or mortality (RR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.45–1.13; p = 0.15). At 1 year, bivalirudin was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.54–1.00, p = 0.05) despite similar composite ischemia (RR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.56–1.21, p = 0.811). In conclusion, thrombin inhibition with bivalirudin alone was associated with reduced 30-day major bleeding and 1-year all-cause mortality compared with heparin plus GPI in diabetic patients undergoing PCI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Pharmacology (medical)