Blood group studies in two Old Order Amish isolates support previous evidence for genetic differences in the two groups. The more completely studied Amish community, that of Lancaster Co., Pa., revealed higher A and lower O phenotype frequencies than found in the Amish of Holmes Co., Ohio. In both groups, about one-fourth of individuals are Rh negative. Three blood group genes (Kell-positive, CDue and CDE) are present in low frequency in the Lancaster Amish, and pedigree studies identified individuals who may have introduced them to the Amish. Preliminary studies of an unusual antibody found in one Amish female provide evidence for a "new" red cell antigen which is present in about one-fourth of Americans.
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