TY - JOUR

T1 - Breakdown of the equivalence between gravitational mass and energy due to quantum effects

AU - Lebed, Andrei G.

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2019, The Authors. All rights reserved.
Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/10/8

Y1 - 2019/10/8

N2 - We review our recent theoretical results about inequivalence between passive and active gravitational masses and energy in semiclassical variant of general relativity, where gravitational field is not quantized but matter is quantized. To this end, we consider the simplest quantum body with internal degrees of freedom - a hydrogen atom. We concentrate our attention on the following physical effects, related to electron mass. The first one is inequivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at microscopic level. Indeed, quantum measurement of gravitational mass can give result, which is different from the expected, m 6= me + Ec21 , where electron is initially in its ground state; me is the bare electron mass. The second effect is that the expectation values of both passive and active gravitational masses of stationary quantum states are equivalent to the expectation value of energy. The most spectacular effects are inequivalence of passive and active gravitational masses and energy at macroscopic level for ensemble of coherent superpositions of stationary quantum states. We show that, for such superpositions, the expectation values of passive and active gravitational masses are not related to the expectation value of energy by the famous Einstein’s equation, m 6= cE2 . In this review, we also improve several drawbacks of the original pioneering works.

AB - We review our recent theoretical results about inequivalence between passive and active gravitational masses and energy in semiclassical variant of general relativity, where gravitational field is not quantized but matter is quantized. To this end, we consider the simplest quantum body with internal degrees of freedom - a hydrogen atom. We concentrate our attention on the following physical effects, related to electron mass. The first one is inequivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at microscopic level. Indeed, quantum measurement of gravitational mass can give result, which is different from the expected, m 6= me + Ec21 , where electron is initially in its ground state; me is the bare electron mass. The second effect is that the expectation values of both passive and active gravitational masses of stationary quantum states are equivalent to the expectation value of energy. The most spectacular effects are inequivalence of passive and active gravitational masses and energy at macroscopic level for ensemble of coherent superpositions of stationary quantum states. We show that, for such superpositions, the expectation values of passive and active gravitational masses are not related to the expectation value of energy by the famous Einstein’s equation, m 6= cE2 . In this review, we also improve several drawbacks of the original pioneering works.

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M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85094730555

JO - Nuclear Physics A

JF - Nuclear Physics A

SN - 0375-9474

ER -