Beagle puppies infected with both canine parainfluenza virus type 2 (CPI2) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) develop more severe acute bronchiolitis and airways hyperresponsiveness than do those infected with CPI2 or Bb alone. The aim of our study was to characterize the inflammatory response associated with airway hyperresponsiveness, and to determine whether the inflammatory cell response of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) reflected changes in the bronchioles in this model. We investigated 25 beagle puppies (ages 76 ± 5 days, mean ± SEM) in four groups: controls (n = 6), or puppies inoculated with both CPI2 and Bb (CPI2‐Bb) (n = 11), with only CPI2 (n = 4), or only Bb (n = 4). The puppies were killed 3–4 days after inoculation, the lungs excised, the intermediate lobe lavaged, and BALF and the bronchiolar wall tissue examined for neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. Control puppies had no evidence of inflammation. However, the CPI2‐Bb puppies had developed cough and rhinitis, positive cultures for CPI2 and Bb, and a neutrophilic cellular response in both the bronchioles and the BALF. Puppies inoculated with only CPI2 or Bb had milder illnesses and no significant bronchiolar and BALF neutrophilic response. For all groups, the severity of bronchiolar wall inflammation correlated with the total number of BALF inflammatory cells, and bronchiolar wall neutrophil counts correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in the BALF. The illness and the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in the CPI2‐Bb group were associated with airway neutrophilia. Our studies support the hypothesis that neutrophils are associated with airway dysfunction in this model, and the use of BALF to study the process.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine