Building an adaptive brain across development: Targets for neurorehabilitation must begin in infancy

Jamie O Edgin, Caron A C Clark, Esha Massand, Annette Karmiloff-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Much progress has been made toward behavioral and pharmacological intervention in intellectual disability, which was once thought too difficult to treat. Down syndrome (DS) research has shown rapid advances, and clinical trials are currently underway, with more on the horizon. Here, we review the literature on the emergent profile of cognitive development in DS, emphasizing that treatment approaches must consider how some “end state” impairments, such as language deficits, may develop from early alterations in neural systems beginning in infancy. Specifically, we highlight evidence suggesting that there are pre- and early postnatal alterations in brain structure and function in DS, resulting in disturbed network function across development. We stress that these early alterations are likely amplified by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression and poor sleep. Focusing on three network hubs (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum), we discuss how these regions may relate to evolving deficits in cognitive function in individuals with DS, and to their language profile in particular.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number232
JournalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Volume9
Issue numberSeptember
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 11 2015

Fingerprint

Down Syndrome
Brain
Language
Prefrontal Cortex
Intellectual Disability
Cerebellum
Cognition
Disease Progression
Hippocampus
Alzheimer Disease
Sleep
Clinical Trials
Pharmacology
Neurological Rehabilitation
Research
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Brain development
  • Cerebellum
  • Connectivity
  • Down syndrome
  • Hippocampus
  • Language
  • Rehabilitation
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Cite this

Building an adaptive brain across development : Targets for neurorehabilitation must begin in infancy. / Edgin, Jamie O; Clark, Caron A C; Massand, Esha; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette.

In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 9, No. September, 232, 11.09.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Edgin, Jamie O ; Clark, Caron A C ; Massand, Esha ; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette. / Building an adaptive brain across development : Targets for neurorehabilitation must begin in infancy. In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2015 ; Vol. 9, No. September.
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