Background: Rates of Campylobacter infection in Arizona have historically been higher than the national average, with the highest rates in Hispanic populations. The purpose of this retrospective case-case analysis was to determine how risk factors and disease presentation differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic) in cases of campylobacteriosis from 2012 to 2015 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Methods: Basic demographics and seasonality, including standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs), were analyzed to determine differences by ethnicity. To determine differences in risk factors, adjusted univariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted. Results: There were significant differences by ethnicity by age (1-14 years and >60 years), location of residence (urban vs. suburban), and testing methodology. Most months in the seasonality analysis showed higher than expected values of Hispanic cases based on population distributions (SMR Range: 0.91-1.78, annual mean: 1.23). Differences in disease presentation showed that Hispanics (adjusted for age and location of residence) were more likely to experience vomiting (OR = 1.41) and fever (OR = 1.08), as well as seek care through an urgent care or emergency department (OR = 1.50), than non-Hispanic cases. Hispanics had a higher odds of reporting consumption of tomatoes (OR = 1.45), salsa (OR = 2.35), cilantro (OR = 2.21), queso fresco (OR = 8.53), and sprouts (OR = 1.94) than non-Hispanic cases. Multivariable analyses found queso fresco (aOR = 6.58), cilantro (aOR = 3.93), and animal products (aOR = 0.38) all to be significant by ethnicity. Conclusions: Hispanics had a higher likelihood of consuming high risk foods, while non-Hispanics were more likely to have environmental exposures linked to Campylobacter infection. Focused questionnaires can reveal differences and contribute to improving public health action/education for specific populations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Animal Science and Zoology