Background In view of limited data on the subject of graft and patient survival differences between African American (AA) and non-AA heart transplant recipients, we reviewed our experience. Hypothesis There is a higher mortality among AA recipients compared with non-AA recipients after cardiac transplantation. Methods The study included all AA patients who have received a heart transplant in our center since 1983. Stepwise Cox regression was used for covariates affecting the survival. The χ2 test was employed to identify the effects of a mechanical assist device and pretransplant creatinine (Cr) on the outcomes in AA and non-AA patients. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine survival. Results The average survival among AA recipients was 5.4 years, compared with 12 years for the non-AA recipients, with 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of 80%, 55%, and 25%, respectively. This was found to be statistically inferior to the survival probabilities of 92%, 78%, and 58% for the non-AA group (P < 0.005). Based on stepwise Cox regression, the variables such as ethnicity (P < 0.05), pretransplant Cr (P < 0.05), presence of a mechanical assist device (P < 0.005), and United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status at transplant (P < 0.05) independently predicted the outcomes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of pretransplant Cr level and survival showed that the AA group did significantly worse for all Cr classes. Conclusions There is a statistically significant difference in outcomes between AA and non-AA patients after cardiac transplantation. African American patients have decreased survival over a period of time. Pretransplant Cr, ethnicity, presence of a mechanical assist device, and UNOS status at transplantation are independent predictors of outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine