Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model

Barry Martin, Subrato Deb, Leon Sun, David Burris, Brenda Austin, Norman M. Rich, Peter M Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Many rat hemorrhagic shock models use the carotid artery for access followed by ligation. We hypothesized that the combination of carotid artery ligation and hemorrhagic shock may result in cerebral injury which can influence results. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=44) were cannulated in the external jugular vein and either the carotid artery (n=32) or the femoral artery (n=12) under isofluorane. A five minute hemorrhage (26-28cc/kg) was performed via the arterial cannula followed by a 60 minute shock period. Resuscitation followed with three times hemorrhaged blood volume of Ringer's Lactate solution over one hour through the verious line. Fourteen animals were observed for survival data. Eighteen animals had brain harvested at 2, 24 and 72 hours after resuscitation. Brain tissue was examined fresh or after insitu perfusion with paraformaldehyde. Fixed tissues underwent H & E and TNFα immunohistochemical staining. Results: Animals with femoral artery ligation never demonstrated neurologic or brain morphologic abnormalities. In carotid artery ligation followed for survival, 7/10 of the non-survivors had abnormal neurologic activity (long-axis spinning behavior, opisthotonus, tremors and hyper-agitation). Timed harvesting in 18 animals revealed pale and edematous gross unilateral cortical injury ipsilateral to the carotid artery ligation in 8/11 fresh specimens. Although brains fixed insitu only demonstrated gross injury in 2/7 animals, histologic examination demonstrated cellular injury in the hippocampus ipsilateral to carotid artery ligation in 5/7 specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased TNFa in ipsilateral cortical and hippocampal CA1 neurons. Conclusion: This study demonstrates cerebral injury following carotid artery cannulation in an accepted standard hemorrhagic shock model. Perfusion prior to brain harvesting may disguise the injury. Studies using carotid cannulation in the hemorrhagic shock model should be considered as a combined injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume27
Issue number1 SUPPL.
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hemorrhagic Shock
Carotid Arteries
Ligation
Wounds and Injuries
Brain
Femoral Artery
Resuscitation
Catheterization
Nervous System
Perfusion
Carotid Artery Injuries
Jugular Veins
Tremor
Blood Volume
Sprague Dawley Rats
Shock
Hippocampus
Staining and Labeling
Hemorrhage
Neurons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model. / Martin, Barry; Deb, Subrato; Sun, Leon; Burris, David; Austin, Brenda; Rich, Norman M.; Rhee, Peter M.

In: Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 1 SUPPL., 1999.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martin, B, Deb, S, Sun, L, Burris, D, Austin, B, Rich, NM & Rhee, PM 1999, 'Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model', Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1 SUPPL..
Martin, Barry ; Deb, Subrato ; Sun, Leon ; Burris, David ; Austin, Brenda ; Rich, Norman M. ; Rhee, Peter M. / Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model. In: Critical Care Medicine. 1999 ; Vol. 27, No. 1 SUPPL.
@article{5f3b06ca0daa449e985082e6ceabd88b,
title = "Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model",
abstract = "Background: Many rat hemorrhagic shock models use the carotid artery for access followed by ligation. We hypothesized that the combination of carotid artery ligation and hemorrhagic shock may result in cerebral injury which can influence results. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=44) were cannulated in the external jugular vein and either the carotid artery (n=32) or the femoral artery (n=12) under isofluorane. A five minute hemorrhage (26-28cc/kg) was performed via the arterial cannula followed by a 60 minute shock period. Resuscitation followed with three times hemorrhaged blood volume of Ringer's Lactate solution over one hour through the verious line. Fourteen animals were observed for survival data. Eighteen animals had brain harvested at 2, 24 and 72 hours after resuscitation. Brain tissue was examined fresh or after insitu perfusion with paraformaldehyde. Fixed tissues underwent H & E and TNFα immunohistochemical staining. Results: Animals with femoral artery ligation never demonstrated neurologic or brain morphologic abnormalities. In carotid artery ligation followed for survival, 7/10 of the non-survivors had abnormal neurologic activity (long-axis spinning behavior, opisthotonus, tremors and hyper-agitation). Timed harvesting in 18 animals revealed pale and edematous gross unilateral cortical injury ipsilateral to the carotid artery ligation in 8/11 fresh specimens. Although brains fixed insitu only demonstrated gross injury in 2/7 animals, histologic examination demonstrated cellular injury in the hippocampus ipsilateral to carotid artery ligation in 5/7 specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased TNFa in ipsilateral cortical and hippocampal CA1 neurons. Conclusion: This study demonstrates cerebral injury following carotid artery cannulation in an accepted standard hemorrhagic shock model. Perfusion prior to brain harvesting may disguise the injury. Studies using carotid cannulation in the hemorrhagic shock model should be considered as a combined injury.",
author = "Barry Martin and Subrato Deb and Leon Sun and David Burris and Brenda Austin and Rich, {Norman M.} and Rhee, {Peter M}",
year = "1999",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
journal = "Critical Care Medicine",
issn = "0090-3493",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1 SUPPL.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cerebral ischemic injury occurs secondary to carotid artery ligation in the rat hemorrhagic shock model

AU - Martin, Barry

AU - Deb, Subrato

AU - Sun, Leon

AU - Burris, David

AU - Austin, Brenda

AU - Rich, Norman M.

AU - Rhee, Peter M

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Background: Many rat hemorrhagic shock models use the carotid artery for access followed by ligation. We hypothesized that the combination of carotid artery ligation and hemorrhagic shock may result in cerebral injury which can influence results. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=44) were cannulated in the external jugular vein and either the carotid artery (n=32) or the femoral artery (n=12) under isofluorane. A five minute hemorrhage (26-28cc/kg) was performed via the arterial cannula followed by a 60 minute shock period. Resuscitation followed with three times hemorrhaged blood volume of Ringer's Lactate solution over one hour through the verious line. Fourteen animals were observed for survival data. Eighteen animals had brain harvested at 2, 24 and 72 hours after resuscitation. Brain tissue was examined fresh or after insitu perfusion with paraformaldehyde. Fixed tissues underwent H & E and TNFα immunohistochemical staining. Results: Animals with femoral artery ligation never demonstrated neurologic or brain morphologic abnormalities. In carotid artery ligation followed for survival, 7/10 of the non-survivors had abnormal neurologic activity (long-axis spinning behavior, opisthotonus, tremors and hyper-agitation). Timed harvesting in 18 animals revealed pale and edematous gross unilateral cortical injury ipsilateral to the carotid artery ligation in 8/11 fresh specimens. Although brains fixed insitu only demonstrated gross injury in 2/7 animals, histologic examination demonstrated cellular injury in the hippocampus ipsilateral to carotid artery ligation in 5/7 specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased TNFa in ipsilateral cortical and hippocampal CA1 neurons. Conclusion: This study demonstrates cerebral injury following carotid artery cannulation in an accepted standard hemorrhagic shock model. Perfusion prior to brain harvesting may disguise the injury. Studies using carotid cannulation in the hemorrhagic shock model should be considered as a combined injury.

AB - Background: Many rat hemorrhagic shock models use the carotid artery for access followed by ligation. We hypothesized that the combination of carotid artery ligation and hemorrhagic shock may result in cerebral injury which can influence results. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=44) were cannulated in the external jugular vein and either the carotid artery (n=32) or the femoral artery (n=12) under isofluorane. A five minute hemorrhage (26-28cc/kg) was performed via the arterial cannula followed by a 60 minute shock period. Resuscitation followed with three times hemorrhaged blood volume of Ringer's Lactate solution over one hour through the verious line. Fourteen animals were observed for survival data. Eighteen animals had brain harvested at 2, 24 and 72 hours after resuscitation. Brain tissue was examined fresh or after insitu perfusion with paraformaldehyde. Fixed tissues underwent H & E and TNFα immunohistochemical staining. Results: Animals with femoral artery ligation never demonstrated neurologic or brain morphologic abnormalities. In carotid artery ligation followed for survival, 7/10 of the non-survivors had abnormal neurologic activity (long-axis spinning behavior, opisthotonus, tremors and hyper-agitation). Timed harvesting in 18 animals revealed pale and edematous gross unilateral cortical injury ipsilateral to the carotid artery ligation in 8/11 fresh specimens. Although brains fixed insitu only demonstrated gross injury in 2/7 animals, histologic examination demonstrated cellular injury in the hippocampus ipsilateral to carotid artery ligation in 5/7 specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased TNFa in ipsilateral cortical and hippocampal CA1 neurons. Conclusion: This study demonstrates cerebral injury following carotid artery cannulation in an accepted standard hemorrhagic shock model. Perfusion prior to brain harvesting may disguise the injury. Studies using carotid cannulation in the hemorrhagic shock model should be considered as a combined injury.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750834479&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750834479&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33750834479

VL - 27

JO - Critical Care Medicine

JF - Critical Care Medicine

SN - 0090-3493

IS - 1 SUPPL.

ER -