Virtually all of the studies that have examined the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and unit or organizational effectiveness have focused on affiliation-oriented as opposed to challenge-oriented forms of OCB, and no study has examined the mechanisms through which OCBs influence unit or organizational effectiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the main and interactive effects that challenge-oriented and affiliation-oriented OCBs have on organizational effectiveness through their impact on workgroup task performance. Results from a sample of 150 limited-menu restaurants showed that the relationship between challenge-oriented OCBs and workgroup task performance has an inverted-U shape and is moderated by affiliation-oriented OCBs, and that workgroup task performance completely mediated the impact of challenge- and affiliation-oriented OCBs (and their interaction) on organizational outcomes (i.e., sales dollars, profit as a percentage of sales, and employee turnover). Specifically, the findings showed that challenge-oriented OCBs have a positive impact on workgroup task performance up to a point, and beyond that point only when certain enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of affiliation-oriented OCBs) are present. Implications are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Psychology
- Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management