This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the summer and winter of 2017 in the urban area of Shiraz, Iran. Sampling was fulfilled according to EPA Method TO-11 A. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) procedure was used for spatial mapping. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate carcinogenic and non-cancer risk owing to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure in 11 age groups. The average concentrations of formaldehyde/acetaldehyde in the summer and winter were 15.07/8.40 μg m−3 and 8.57/3.52 μg m−3, respectively. The formaldehyde to acetaldehyde ratios in the summer and winter were 1.80 and 2.43, respectively. The main sources of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were photochemical generation, vehicular traffic, and biogenic emissions (e.g., coniferous and deciduous trees). The mean inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) values according to the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in summer and winter ranged between 7.55 × 10−6 and 9.25 × 10−5, which exceed the recommended value by US EPA. The average LTCR according to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in summer and winter were between 4.82 × 10−6 and 2.58 × 10−4, which exceeds recommended values for five different age groups (Birth to <1, 1 to <2, 2 to <3, 3 to <6, and 6 to <11 years). Hazard quotients (HQs) of formaldehyde ranged between 0.04 and 4.18 for both seasons, while the HQs for acetaldehyde were limited between 0.42 and 0.97.
- Hazard quotient
- Risk assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis