Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet

Abhijith Rajan, Julien Rameau, Robert J.De Rosa, Mark S. Marley, James R. Graham, Bruce Macintosh, Christian Marois, Caroline Morley, Jennifer Patience, Laurent Pueyo, Didier Saumon, Kimberly Ward-Duong, S. Mark Ammons, Pauline Arriaga, Vanessa P. Bailey, Travis Barman, Joanna Bulger, Adam S. Burrows, Jeffrey Chilcote, Tara Cotten & 41 others Ian Czekala, Rene Doyon, Gaspard Duchêne, Thomas M. Esposito, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Katherine B. Follette, Jonathan J. Fortney, Stephen J. Goodsell, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Li Wei Hung, Patrick Ingraham, Mara Johnson-Groh, Paul Kalas, Quinn Konopacky, David Lafrenière, James E. Larkin, Jérôme Maire, Franck Marchis, Stanimir Metchev, Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer, Katie M. Morzinski, Eric L. Nielsen, Rebecca Oppenheimer, David Palmer, Rahul I. Patel, Marshall Perrin, Lisa Poyneer, Fredrik T. Rantakyrö, Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Dmitry Savransky, Adam C. Schneider, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Inseok Song, Rémi Soummer, Sandrine Thomas, Gautam Vasisht, J. Kent Wallace, Jason J. Wang, Sloane Wiktorowicz, Schuyler Wolff

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10-2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 (logL/L), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 M⊕.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Article number10
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume154
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Fingerprint

extrasolar planets
planets
planet
atmospheres
atmosphere
spectral energy distribution
photometry
luminosity
energy
distribution
spectrophotometry
photosphere
opacity
metallicity
sulfides
silicates
cameras
grids
time measurement
gravitation

Keywords

  • instrumentation: adaptive optics
  • planets and satellites: atmospheres
  • planets and satellites: composition
  • planets and satellites: gaseous planets
  • stars: individual (51 Eridani)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Rajan, A., Rameau, J., Rosa, R. J. D., Marley, M. S., Graham, J. R., Macintosh, B., ... Wolff, S. (2017). Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet. Astronomical Journal, 154(1), [10]. DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa74db

Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm : A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet. / Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rosa, Robert J.De; Marley, Mark S.; Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Morley, Caroline; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Saumon, Didier; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Ammons, S. Mark; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bulger, Joanna; Burrows, Adam S.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; Czekala, Ian; Doyon, Rene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson-Groh, Mara; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Lafrenière, David; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patel, Rahul I.; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, No. 1, 10, 01.07.2017.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Rajan, A, Rameau, J, Rosa, RJD, Marley, MS, Graham, JR, Macintosh, B, Marois, C, Morley, C, Patience, J, Pueyo, L, Saumon, D, Ward-Duong, K, Ammons, SM, Arriaga, P, Bailey, VP, Barman, T, Bulger, J, Burrows, AS, Chilcote, J, Cotten, T, Czekala, I, Doyon, R, Duchêne, G, Esposito, TM, Fitzgerald, MP, Follette, KB, Fortney, JJ, Goodsell, SJ, Greenbaum, AZ, Hibon, P, Hung, LW, Ingraham, P, Johnson-Groh, M, Kalas, P, Konopacky, Q, Lafrenière, D, Larkin, JE, Maire, J, Marchis, F, Metchev, S, Millar-Blanchaer, MA, Morzinski, KM, Nielsen, EL, Oppenheimer, R, Palmer, D, Patel, RI, Perrin, M, Poyneer, L, Rantakyrö, FT, Ruffio, JB, Savransky, D, Schneider, AC, Sivaramakrishnan, A, Song, I, Soummer, R, Thomas, S, Vasisht, G, Wallace, JK, Wang, JJ, Wiktorowicz, S & Wolff, S 2017, 'Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet' Astronomical Journal, vol 154, no. 1, 10. DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa74db
Rajan A, Rameau J, Rosa RJD, Marley MS, Graham JR, Macintosh B et al. Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet. Astronomical Journal. 2017 Jul 1;154(1). 10. Available from, DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa74db
Rajan, Abhijith ; Rameau, Julien ; Rosa, Robert J.De ; Marley, Mark S. ; Graham, James R. ; Macintosh, Bruce ; Marois, Christian ; Morley, Caroline ; Patience, Jennifer ; Pueyo, Laurent ; Saumon, Didier ; Ward-Duong, Kimberly ; Ammons, S. Mark ; Arriaga, Pauline ; Bailey, Vanessa P. ; Barman, Travis ; Bulger, Joanna ; Burrows, Adam S. ; Chilcote, Jeffrey ; Cotten, Tara ; Czekala, Ian ; Doyon, Rene ; Duchêne, Gaspard ; Esposito, Thomas M. ; Fitzgerald, Michael P. ; Follette, Katherine B. ; Fortney, Jonathan J. ; Goodsell, Stephen J. ; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. ; Hibon, Pascale ; Hung, Li Wei ; Ingraham, Patrick ; Johnson-Groh, Mara ; Kalas, Paul ; Konopacky, Quinn ; Lafrenière, David ; Larkin, James E. ; Maire, Jérôme ; Marchis, Franck ; Metchev, Stanimir ; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. ; Morzinski, Katie M. ; Nielsen, Eric L. ; Oppenheimer, Rebecca ; Palmer, David ; Patel, Rahul I. ; Perrin, Marshall ; Poyneer, Lisa ; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. ; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste ; Savransky, Dmitry ; Schneider, Adam C. ; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand ; Song, Inseok ; Soummer, Rémi ; Thomas, Sandrine ; Vasisht, Gautam ; Wallace, J. Kent ; Wang, Jason J. ; Wiktorowicz, Sloane ; Wolff, Schuyler. / Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm : A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet. In: Astronomical Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 154, No. 1.
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abstract = "We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10-2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 (logL/L⊙), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 M⊕.",
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AU - Rameau,Julien

AU - Rosa,Robert J.De

AU - Marley,Mark S.

AU - Graham,James R.

AU - Macintosh,Bruce

AU - Marois,Christian

AU - Morley,Caroline

AU - Patience,Jennifer

AU - Pueyo,Laurent

AU - Saumon,Didier

AU - Ward-Duong,Kimberly

AU - Ammons,S. Mark

AU - Arriaga,Pauline

AU - Bailey,Vanessa P.

AU - Barman,Travis

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AU - Greenbaum,Alexandra Z.

AU - Hibon,Pascale

AU - Hung,Li Wei

AU - Ingraham,Patrick

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AU - Lafrenière,David

AU - Larkin,James E.

AU - Maire,Jérôme

AU - Marchis,Franck

AU - Metchev,Stanimir

AU - Millar-Blanchaer,Maxwell A.

AU - Morzinski,Katie M.

AU - Nielsen,Eric L.

AU - Oppenheimer,Rebecca

AU - Palmer,David

AU - Patel,Rahul I.

AU - Perrin,Marshall

AU - Poyneer,Lisa

AU - Rantakyrö,Fredrik T.

AU - Ruffio,Jean Baptiste

AU - Savransky,Dmitry

AU - Schneider,Adam C.

AU - Sivaramakrishnan,Anand

AU - Song,Inseok

AU - Soummer,Rémi

AU - Thomas,Sandrine

AU - Vasisht,Gautam

AU - Wallace,J. Kent

AU - Wang,Jason J.

AU - Wiktorowicz,Sloane

AU - Wolff,Schuyler

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N2 - We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10-2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 (logL/L⊙), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 M⊕.

AB - We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10-2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 (logL/L⊙), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 M⊕.

KW - instrumentation: adaptive optics

KW - planets and satellites: atmospheres

KW - planets and satellites: composition

KW - planets and satellites: gaseous planets

KW - stars: individual (51 Eridani)

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