Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

87 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the “warm edges” of species’ ranges (i.e., lower latitudes and elevations), contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on climate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%), in animals than in plants (50% versus 39%), and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%). Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2001104
JournalPLoS Biology
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 8 2016

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Climate Change
Climate
Climate change
Animals
extinction
climate
climate change
Ecosystem
animals
Ocean habitats
Global Warming
Biodiversity
Global warming
Fresh Water
habitats
global warming
niches
Population
biodiversity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species. / Wiens, John J.

In: PLoS Biology, Vol. 14, No. 12, e2001104, 08.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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